Holy and Undivided Trinity, Ely, Cambridgeshire

Feature Sets (4)

Description

The church begun by Abbot Simeon in 1082 had a 13-bay aisled nave, four-bay aisled transepts, a crossing with a tower, and a four-bay aisled chancel terminating in an apse. At the W end was a second transept with E chapels and a second tower. A western Galilee porch was added in the 13thc. (1198–1215), and the chancel was extended to the E with a six-bay retrochoir, completed in 1252. In 1321 the Lady Chapel was added to the N of the choir, and a year later the crossing tower collapsed. The octagon, built to replace it, was completed by 1342, and in the same campaign the remaining bays of the 11thc. chancel were replaced. The only above-ground survivals of the original chancel are the two easternmost piers of its straight section. Elsewhere in the building, the N section of the W transept collapsed in the late 15thc., and the NW corner of the N transept in 1699. The former was merely consolidated, the latter rebuilt.

The generally accepted chronology for the standing Norman work dates the lower parts of the entire S transept and the E wall of the N transept to the period between 1082 and the start of the abbatial vacancy in 1093. Stylistic comparisons with work dated between 1118 and 1125 at nearby Peterborough Cathedral suggest that the remainder of the transepts and the nave were completed between the appointment of Abbot Richard in 1100, and the 1120s. The earliest work in the lowest levels of the W transept also belongs to the 1120s, but there is a marked stylistic break above gallery level, and thereafter such late-century features as pointed arches, keeled mouldings and crocket capitals begin to appear. These apparently belong to the campaign of Bishop Geoffrey Ridel (1174–89), who also completed the tower. Not included in this report is the new Galilee porch built, or posthumously funded, by Bishop Eustace (1197–1215). The following description of the various parts of the cathedral roughly follows the building history.

S transept:

This must begin inside the S transept, whose E and W walls have a three-storey, three-bay elevation of arcade, gallery with twin openings and clerestorey with a passage. The three arches of the E arcade were originally entrances to chapels, and the S one still is, but the other two have been blocked off with masonry and combined to form the Old Library, accessible from the S choir aisle. On the W side, the aisle was screened off in the 12thc., but the evidence of two blocked doorways in the E walk of the cloister indicates that entry to the transept was originally possible from the monastic buildings via this aisle. The arcade level to E and W (including the E chapels and W aisle and extending to the first respond of the S nave aisle wall) is the earliest standing fabric of the church. Arches are unmoulded, capitals are of the Norman volute type, some carved with foliage and animals, and the ashlar is coarsely tooled. The same features are noticeable in the lowest level of the S wall, but not in the arcade erected in front of it, which provides a support for the platform linking the E and W galleries. Above the arcade level on all three walls there is a marked change. Tooling is finer, volute capitals have been replaced by cushions, and the orders of arches have acquired angle and soffit rolls. It is normal to connect this disjunction with the abbatial vacancy that lasted from the death of Simeon in 1093 to the appointment of Abbot Richard de Clare in 1100, although Barlow has suggested that the presence of Ranulf Flambard, who managed the abbey's finances from five years before Simeon's death, and throughout the interregnum might have provided a stabilising influence.

Whatever the date of the change in design, it is clear enough that the upper levels of all three walls, the tall arcade on the S wall, and the blocking of the W aisle all postdate it. Much later comes the addition of the 15thc. Fourth storey window in the S gable. Some evidence for the original arrangement appears on the exterior, where remains of the springing of a wall arcade are visible. The E windows of the E chapels were replaced in the late 13thc., and those of the E and W galleries in the 15thc.

On the exterior the S transept facade reflects the nave and aisle structure within. The gabled, five-storey central section is divided from the two-storey aisles by broad, flat buttresses that transpose, at the bottom of the fifth storey, into two-storey octagonal turrets with pyramidal roofs. The two storeys of the turrets are decorated with blind arcading and there are cusped corbel tables under the eaves and sets of three corbels at the top of the lower storey.

N transept:

The interior of the N transept shows the same change in design as the S, but not in the same places. Only the E arcade and its two southernmost chapels have all the earlier forms, the N chapel has cushion capitals on the vault supports and a roll moulding in its N window. The N and W sides of the transept have the newer forms throughout (although roll-moulded arches do not appear on the W arcade). Examination of this area of the building is complicated by the restoration following the 1699 collapse of the NW corner. This affects the W half of the N wall, inside and out, and the N part of the W arcade and aisle wall. Other changes to the fabric in the N transept are the replacement of the windows of the E chapels, the W gallery and the N clerestorey in the later Middle Ages.

A comparison of the arcades of the two transepts reveals a rather curious disjunction. Both have an alternation of compound and circular piers, but the system has been reversed so that in the S those nearest the crossing are circular, whereas in the N they are compound. The original arrangement, with four-bay transepts and a smaller, square crossing, would have made this inconsistency even more obvious. The reason for the change surely has nothing to do with the balcony at gallery level on the end wall, but might relate to the original roofing arrangements. Both transepts have wooden roofs now, and did originally, but the present roofs date from the 15thc. In the S there is nothing to indicate the original form of the roof beyond the thin buttresses between the bays at clerestorey level only. In the N, however, a half-column respond runs the entire height of the wall between the two northernmost bays only. This would seem to imply a roofing system based on double bays, although it is curious to find the strong roof support here rather than a bay further S.

The N transept facade differs from the S in the treatment of the turrets. A square plan with chamfered and shafted angles is maintained from ground level up to their sixth storey, where they clear the gable. At this point the plan becomes circular, and decorated with a blind arcade syncopated with the cusping of the corbel table above. The E turret is original; the W is a copy.

Nave:

The original 13-bay nave had its easternmost bays communicating with the transept W aisles. This arrangement was lost with the introduction of the Octagon at the crossing, and the present 12 bays are all W of the transept. The elevation is similar to that of the transepts, with alternating round and compound piers, galleries with double openings and triple openings to the clerestorey passage, and it is remarkably regular. Unlike the transepts, however, every pier has a respond running the entire height of the wall as a roof support. Again, too, the original roof is no longer evident; the present ceiling dates from the 19thc. Pevsner finds the ambiguity between a double-bay and a single-bay system indecisive. Within this uniform system there are differences between the N and S elevations. On the N side the roof support responds have the form of half shafts against dosserets, but this system is used only for the first two piers on the S. Further W the main half shafts are flanked by a pair of smaller ones. The treatment of the circular piers also differs between the N and S elevations. In both cases the arch they carry is of three orders, and the piers are supplied with a broad cushion capital for the two inner orders linked to a smaller one for the outer order. On the N side these small capitals simply hang, with no member to support them, whereas on the S they have half-column supports coursed with the piers. These differences suggest that the N arcade was laid out before the S, but above the level of the capitals the two arcades apparently proceeded side by side. The key to this is a change of arch design at bay 5 on both sides, and a change of gallery opening design at bay 4. In the arcade arches the four E bays have angle rolls on their inner and outer orders only, whereas from bay 5 all three orders have angle rolls. In the gallery the change is the addition of a hollow moulding to the face of the inner order. Both changes seem slight, but they provide valuable evidence for the sequence of building.

Capitals are mostly cushions, but they are by no means entirely uniform. Common variables include the presence or absence of clearly defined shields, or keels or tucks at the angles, but scattered seemingly at random around the upper levels are a few scallop capitals, capitals decorated with fluting, and decorative imposts.

The interior nave aisle walls are decorated with simple blind arcading and a chevron string course at dado level. On the N side the aisle windows have been replaced, but on the S a change of design can be seen in bays 9–11, where the windows are taller, the chevron units of the string course are longer, and the blind arcade has five units per bay instead of four. The easternmost bay on this side (bay 12) has no window (because of the SW transept chapel alongside it), and is articulated with two rows of blind arcading, the upper with intersecting arches, and with opus reticulatum in the lunette below the vault. The arch into the W transept from bay 12 is richly decorated with chevron ornament. The elaboration of this bay is the only preparation for the riot of surface decoration that breaks out in the SW transept.

The gallery windows on both sides of the nave, and the N aisle windows were replaced in the later Middle Ages.

W transept:

In the SW transept, the E wall is the plainest, having two bays with single openings on the ground storey, twin openings at gallery level and triple openings to the clerestorey passage. The two lower levels of the S bay give onto a two-storey E chapel, dedicated to St Catherine, which was ruinous in the early 19thc. and was rebuilt in 1848. Only the S wall is original. The S and W walls of the transept are much more richly articulated. Each has six storeys of arcading, which include a gallery and a clerestorey with a passage. The S wall also has a triforium passage, and the remaining storeys, three on the S and four on the W, are of blind arcading of various designs. There is a stylistic progression from the lower storeys to the upper. On the lower levels capitals are predominantly simple cushions, there are scallops at gallery level and trefoil, waterleaf and crocket capitals above this. In the clerestorey arcade too the arches are pointed, all suggesting that the upper levels were not completed much before the end of the 12thc. What little remains of the NW transept suggests that it was organisationally a mirror image of its companion, but with some differences in detail, including fret decoration on the E wall gallery arches and cushion capitals where the S transept has crockets, implying that it was built first.

The largely rebuilt transept chapel is built right in the angle of nave and transept, so only two windows are possible. On the exterior, it is divided into eight bays by responds, the third and sixth bays from the S being wider and containing the ground floor and gallery windows. Bays 1, 2, 4 and 5 each contain a blind arch at both levels. The exterior of the transept displays perhaps the most spectacular and satisfying ensemble of superimposed arcading in the country: five storeys of arcading above a plain plinth storey on the main walls, rising by two more arcaded storeys on the decagonal angle turrets.

W Tower:

The cathedral is liberally supplied with corbel tables: at gallery and clerestorey levels on nave and transepts, on the main transept turrets, below the battlements of the west transept and on the turrets there, and at the eaves level of St Catherine's chapel (although these almost all date from the 1847 restoration). The quality is high, although the range of subjects is fairly restricted, including human, animal and grotesque heads and a few exhibitionists. String courses too are limited in type, the carved examples confined to billet, sawtooth, single chevron and chequer ornament.

The same system continues higher on the walls of the W tower, which, in its 12thc. lower part, rises six storeys above the nave battlements. It is square in plan with octagonal angle turrets rising no higher than the tower body. It was completed by around 1200, and provided with a spire some 30 years later. The spire was replaced by an octagon storey in the later 14thc. Presumably the tower arches inside were replaced at the same time, but the original chevron-decorated arches remain visible.

Cloister:

Of the Romanesque cloister nothing remains except sections of wall arcading on the outside of the S nave aisle, and the handsomely carved doorways for which Ely is famous. The Prior's doorway, at the W end of the cloister walk, is deservedly the most celebrated, but the remains of the Monks' and Vestry doorways at the E end of the walk are considerable works by the same carvers. All three must date from around 1130–35, and the remains of an earlier doorway into the S transept aisle also survive at the N end of the E walk.

Tombs:

Only one tomb is included in the survey; the beautiful Tournai marble slab depicting St Michael carrying a naked soul, assumed to be Bishop Nigel's (1131–69), in the N chancel aisle.

In the following descriptions, features such as piers and bays are always numbered starting at the crossing. Hence bay 1 of the N transept is the S bay, while bay 1 of the S transept is the N bay. The interior treatment of windows and doorways is only described when it includes some elaboration.

The author is grateful for the assistance of Stephen Wikner, the Cathedral Bursar, Susan Matthews, the Curator of the Stained Glass Museum, and for the cheerful and unfailing support of the clergy, vergers and cathedral guides.

History

Benedictine monastery (to 1109), Benedictine Cathedral Priory (to 1539), Cathedral (from 1541).

An account of the history of the abbey from its foundation by St Aethelthryth in the early 670s to 1109 when it gained cathedral status is given in Keynes (2003), and this includes the evidence for the early years of the building of the present church. According to the account in the Liber Eliensis, Abbot Simeon laid the foundations, probably in the mid-1080s, and completed the domestic buildings for the monks and laying the foundations of the church before his death in 1093. Thereafter Ranulf Flambard was put in charge, although no appointment was made to the abbacy in the reign of William Rufus. When Henry I became king in 1100, Richard was appointed to the vacancy, and the Liber Eliensis declares that he tried to finish what Simeon had begun, "in as fitting a shape and on as fitting a scale as possible", so that it would deserve to be regarded as the finest church in the land. By 1106 it was necessary to move the founder's body into the new church, where it was placed 'in a special chamber behind the high altar'. Evidence for the work at the west comes from Wharton's collection of transcripts (Anglia Sacra, I, 631). Bishop Ridel (1173–89) 'completed the new work towards the west with the tower even to the top'.

Features

Exterior Features

Doorways

Monks' doorway from cloister N walk into S nave aisle bay 1.

Four orders, trefoil head to the first, otherwise round headed. The entire E jamb and E part of the archivolt are lost, owing to the intrusion of the 14thc. buttress at the NE angle of the cloister. The floor level has been raised and the lower parts of the jambs, including bases, are lost.

Dimensions
h. of opening 3.25 m
w. of opening 1.85 m
First order

The surviving W jamb is square and uncarved on its inner (E) face. The S face is carved with foliage, basically a wave-shaped stem with side shoots looping round to form scrolls. The stems are double-grooved and decorated with clasps where they touch the edges of the jamb. Leaves are usually trilobed, and stem terminals spiral. Flowers are usually more complex than on the Vestry doorway, conforming to the trefoil form of the Byzantine, with decorative beading, drilled centres and furled petals with spiral tips. Halfway up the jamb is a bird, its body facing towards the door and its head turned back, apparently biting a stem.

The impost block has been shaved back on its E face, apparently to accommodate the modern door. What remains is carved with what appears to be the tail of a dragon, decorated with beading and ending in a leaf form. The arch head is of trefoil form, with roll terminals on the cusps of the type used as corbels on the N transept doorway. Here the rolls are modern insertions, and they are not shown on Bentham's engraving of 1770. It seems curious that these superfluities should be accommodated, with a good deal of ingenuity, by the modern doors, whereas the original impost block was not. The cusps themselves are original, however, and they are carved with the monks who give the doorway its name. They face and mirror one another, each kneeling with hands in prayer, each clad in a habit with a hood pulled back, and each holding a crosier. The L monk is bald with curls to the side of his head; the R one is more conventionally tonsured with curls all around.

The head of the arch is carved with a pair of affronted dragons, their heads crossing to bite one another's bodies. Their tails fork and metamorphose into stems of foliage with leaf terminals intertwine with the foliage decoration of the rest of the arch. This is of the same wave form as the jamb, with furled leaves and Byzantine flowers.

Fourth order

An en-delit nook shaft with no base surviving supports a foliate block capital with cable necking. Its design is similar to the second order capital, except that there is no trilobed leaf at the lower angle, the diagonal beaded stems run from the lower angle to the upper edges, and there are furled leaves but no flowers. The pulvinated impost has a lion mask at the angle, with a pair of double-grooved stems issuing from its mouth and forming a loop on each face. Leaves are simple and opposed, or hook-ended. In the arch is a plain angle roll.

Second order

Nook shaft carved with a spiral cable of fat and thin rolls. This supports a block capital with cable necking, carved with interlacing foliage. This is a more elaborate version of the design on the Vestry door capital. Again the double-grooved stems issue from a trilobed leaf at the necking, but there are more of them; again too a diagonal stem intersects the scrolling foliage, but now it is beaded. The design terminates at the top outer corner of each face with a trefoil flower with furled petals and a drilled centre. The impost is pulvinated, with a male bust at the angle, the head tonsured, youthful and open-mouthed. The impost faces are symmetrically carved, each with a pair of double-grooved stems issuing from the outer angle and curving in opposite directions. One stem curves up and back, forming a semicircle at the outer angle; the other forms a loop on the face containing a trilobed leaf and terminating in a trefoil with fronded petals. In the archivolt is an angle roll carved with the same cable used for the nook shaft, turning in opposite directions in each half and meeting in a V at the apex. Outside the roll is a hollow moulding. At the apex of the roll is a female head carved in the round, similar in features to that on the Vestry door, but more elongated in shape and lacking a collar.

Third order

Square jamb, uncarved on the inner face, but the S face carved with a row of nine similar flowers, one or two to a block, each square in outline. For each there is a central drilled boss with four straight grooved sepals and four furled petals radiating from it. The square capital has a pair of intertwined stems on each face, with trilobed leaves and no discernable necking. The pulvinated impost has a large, five-lobed blossom or palmette at the angle, with a pair of stems issuing from its base and terminating in multilobed leaves on each face. The arch is carved on its S face only with a running scroll design with trilobed leaves and grooved stems with reeded clasps.

N transept interior, NE stair turret doorway

Single order, segmental headed with tympanum and roll corbels. This narrow doorway has plain jambs with roll corbels supporting a tympanum, all in the same plane. The monolithic tympanum is segmental and carved with an order of plain fictive voussoirs, indicated by inscribed lines, outside a segment carved with scale ornament. It is supported on a pair of roll corbels, carved on their front faces with fluted sexfoils, and along their bodies with single, nested chevrons, alternately roll and hollow.

Dimensions
h of opening 2.21 m
h of tympanum (block) 0.295 m
thickness of tympanum 0.16 m
w of opening 0.81 m
w of tympanum 0.71 m

Old vestry doorway from cloister E walk into S transept (now a vestry)

Round-headed, one order, blocked. All that remains is slightly more than half of a round-headed arch, extending from just above the springing of the arch on the S side to slightly past its apex. At this point the wall surface is interrupted by a 14thc. buttress, which occupies the NE angle of the cloister, obliterating the N sides of both this doorway and the slightly later vestry doorway ((iii) below); and the S part of the Monks' doorway ((iv) below). The arch is chamfered on the intrados and decorated with a row of chip-carved saltire crosses on the chamfer and another on the face.

Dimensions
h of opening 3.51m
original w. of opening (estimated) 2.20 m

Prior's doorway from cloister N walk into S nave aisle, bay 8.

Round headed, three orders with tympanum.

In place of a capital, between the top of the jamb and the impost on the W side, is an exhibitionist lion, its head projecting and its body arched so that its rump and genitals project from the wall above it. A real lion would have to twist its body as well to achieve the pose, but there is no sign of this. In the corresponding position on the E jamb there are signs that something is lost. A similar lion is shown in Bentham's 1768 engraving, but this is clearly an attempted reconstruction. Lysons's view of 1808 shows the loss much as it is at present. The impost is shared with the second order, and the arch above is flat and carved with a series of palmettes in low relief. There are losses at upper L and upper R of this archivolt, which occurred before 1808.

On the inside the masons have had to cope with the thickness of the wall and the difference in levels between the nave aisle and the cloister walk. The result is a single order doorway with a deeply recessed tympanum covering the back of the tympanum described above. The arch has an angle roll and face hollow, and is supported on nookshafts with cushion capitals and hollow chamfered imposts with a roll towards the bottom of the face. The shaft bases, of double-roll profile, stand on square plinths on the projecting course at the bottom of the aisle wall. A high step is provided to descend from the aisle to the cloister walk.

Dimensions
h of lintel 0.225 m
h of opening 2.525 m
h of tympanum + lintel 1.11 m
thickness of lintel 0.23 m
w of opening 1.45 m
w of tympanum 1.68 m
E jamb medallions

1. Gemini - two lovers (?) facing one another and holding a cup.

2. Woman facing R holding a cup in both hands.

3. Woman facing L pouring liquid from a pitcher into a cup.

4. Musician playing a harp.

5. Musician playing a flute.

6. Two dogs bringing down a deer (?).

7. Man facing L holding a fish (?).

8. Man facing R with bellows (?).

9. Man facing L holding (?).

10. Man facing R playing viol.

11. Frontal male nude, head to R, holding (?).

12. Tumbling acrobat.

13. Fish swimming L at bottom, unidentified object above.

14. Two figures facing one another rowing a boat.

15. Damaged half-medallion.

First order

The lintel is a single block of stone, but the tympanum is made up of four courses of small blocks, 20 in all. The mortar joins are clearly visible today, but would originally have been concealed by the paint applied to the entire surface. The composition centres on a frontal figure of Christ in Majesty in a mandorla. He is seated on a flat arch with raised edges, presumably originally painted as a rainbow. His R hand is raised with the first two fingers, extended in blessing, overlapping the mandorla. With his L hand he supports an open book, scribed with ruling, on his L knee. Behind and above the book is a cross. His feet are bare and the long toes rest on the bottom of the mandorla. His face is youthful and beardless with almond-shaped eyes, a long narrow nose and a small mouth with well-defined lips. His hair is shown as tight curls on either side of his head. His undergarment has a border at the neck and is articulated in a series of horizontal folds on his R torso. It is also visible on his L shin, where it is articulated in a series of V-shaped folds. The overgarment is decorated with beaded borders. There is an elaborate knot of fabric at the waist, the end hanging down in zigzag pleats, and similar pleating appears where the hem falls from his L knee. A curious feature of the drapery is a flyaway hem to the L, between his raised R arm and his R knee. This also appears in the derivative composition at Kirtling.

The figure of Christ occupies the entire central axis from the apex of the tympanum to the bottom edge of the lintel, and he is flanked by a pair of angels standing on the lower edge of the lintel. Their heads are at the level of Christ's chest, but since they are standing they are read as considerably smaller than him. Their postures mirror one another, seeming to walk away from Christ while turning their heads back to face him. Each supports the mandorla with both hands, and in each case the arm supporting the upper part has been grotesquely lengthened to carry out its task. Each angel is equipped with a pair of large wings, which are carved to follow the outer edge of the tympanum. Their feet are large and bare, their heads covered with tight curls like Christ's. The face of the R angel is lost, but the L one is well preserved and has large almond-shaped eyes and prominent ears but otherwise refined and delicate features with large cheeks and chin. The angels' drapery is similar to Christ's, and like Christ each has the unusual flyaway hem to the side.

The figure composition thus treats the tympanum and lintel as a single field, but the outer ends of the lintel are separately conceived, each being carved with two scrolls of foliage terminating in and enclosing a trilobed blossom (outer scrolls) or leaf (inner scrolls).

A pair of corbels carved with male busts supports the lintel. The heads are turned to face the viewer entering the doorway, and while both faces have similar bulging almond-shaped eyes and rather pugilistic noses, the man on the L has a short beard and moustache, carved in straight cuts, and a reeded skullcap over wavy hair covering his ears, while his counterpart on the R is youthful, beardless and hatless, with hair in tight curls like Christ and the two angels in the tympanum and visible ears. The corbels form part of the first order jambs, which are square in section with their inner faces otherwise uncarved. The front jamb faces, however, are decorated with foliage of the type found at the ends of the lintel; a series of scrolling stems enclosing leaves or blossoms. On either jamb the stems issue from beast heads at the foot.

Second order

In the jambs are nook shafts, each resting on a large block depicting a lion lying across the jamb with a human figure sitting side-saddle on its back, facing the jamb and holding the nookshaft with both hands. On the W side the composition is clear enough, although both lion and rider have lost their heads and the surface is generally eroded. The E side group is in a far worse state. The nook-shafts are carved with a broad spiral design, the fields alternately occupied by foliage and beasts. The foliage designs are similar to those on the first order jambs, with blossoms and leaves enclosed by scrolls. The beasts are pairs of dragons, lions, composite beasts and birds in combat. The capitals are of cushion type, carved in deep relief with a foliage design. E and W capitals are similar. Each has a triangular, multilobed fluted leaf on the lower angle, and from this rise a pair of grooved stems in spiral sheaths and a pair of beaded stems. The beaded stems cut diagonally across the adjacent capital faces, while the grooved stems each form a scroll on an adjacent face. The scrolls loop and twist, and hook-shaped fluted leaves issue from them, but they eventually rejoin at a pair of leaves at the upper angle of the capital. The capitals have cable neckings. Their imposts are simple square blocks, shared with the third order, and carved with pairs of dragons, one to each face and confronted on each jamb. The dragons on the longer S faces of the imposts have tails which transform into double foliage scrolls, while those on the inner faces spiral once and terminate in leaves. The arch has an angle roll carved as a spiral strip of foliage scrollwork similar to that found on the first order jambs but on a smaller scale. On the arch face outside this is a single row of nailhead.

Third order

Flat, squared jambs of large en-delit blocks, uncarved on their inner faces but carved in relief on their S faces with a vertical column of medallions encircled by single-grooved frames with small pellets where they touch. There are 14 medallions on the W jamb and 14-and-a-half on the E, and above them on either side is carved a twin-towered gateway with domes on the towers and over the gate, and fictive stonework, tiling and windows.

W jamb medallions

1 (top). Man seated at table facing R, drinking.

2. Deer with antlers standing facing R.

3. Large-headed goat with horns and beard facing R.

4. Ram standing facing R.

5. Boar standing facing R.

6. Warrior with shield standing facing R.

7. Rabbit with large ears standing facing R.

8. Aquarius as a fish-tailed man seated facing L and holding a large pitcher.

9. Pisces as a pair of fish, one above the other swimming in opposite directions.

10. Leo (?) with raised tail, facing R.

11. Fish-tailed siren holding her tail.

12. Damaged - appears to be a foliage motif.

13. Damaged - possibly a horse and rider.

14. Damaged - bird in profile to R, with head turned back.

Vestry doorway from cloister E walk into S transept (now a vestry)

Round-headed, one order, blocked. The S jamb and S part of the archivolt, extending just beyond the apex, are all that remain. In the jamb is an en-delit nook shaft, carved with a spiral design of scrolling foliage between beaded bands. The foliage stems are reeded with occasional triple-reeded clasps, and the leaves reeded or fluted, sometimes furled, sometimes with spiral tips. There are trefoil flowers too, the petals issuing from a small boss. At the top and bottom of the shaft is a trilobed leaf motif from which the stem appears to issue. The base is too worn to resolve. The capital is block-shaped and deeply carved with foliage. At the lower angle is a trilobed leaf, with an angle leaf and two grooved stems issuing from it. The stems each curve across the adjacent face, bifurcating before the reach the edge of it. From the fork, the upper stem has a complex spiral terminal and the lower simply loops into the necking. Cutting diagonally across each face from the upper angle is another grooved stem. Finally, the lower loops on each face enclose a trefoil flower with central boss.

The necking has a row of directional chevron on a roll. The impost is pulvinated and deeply carved on its inner (N) face, but unfortunately cut back on its W face. The E face design is a trefoil flower on a curved stem; the outer petals of the flower furled, the central one beaded, and the central boss drilled, while the stem is decorated with reeded bands.

The arch has an angle roll with spiral decoration of the same type as the nook shaft. At its apex is a female head with beaded collar and long curly hair falling to L and R. She has almond-shaped eyes with projecting lids and brows, the latter joined to the straight nose. The mouth is small with full lips and a pronounced philtrum.

Dimensions
h. of opening 2.84 m
original w of opening (estimated) 1.94 m

Windows

Nave N clerestorey (12 windows)

As (xiii) above.

Nave, S aisle, bays 1–8 (eight windows)

The sills are immediately above the cloister roof, which is why they are shorter than those further W. The design is as (ix) above inside and out.

Nave, S aisle, bays 9–11 (three windows)

As (xv) above but the windows are taller.

Nave, S clerestorey (12 windows)

As (xiii) above. This design is uniform for the entire clerestorey, although it is compressed in the narrower 12thc. bay.

N transept, E clerestorey (three windows)

Round headed, two order window flanked by lower and narrower two order blind arches of the same design. The first order is plain and continuous; the second has en-delit nook shafts with cushion capitals and chamfered imposts with a groove at the bottom of the face. The arch has an angle roll and face hollow. There are single billet chamfered labels running the entire height of the window and its flanking arches. The interior is plain and continuous.

N transept, E gallery (three windows)

Round headed, two orders. The first is plain and continuous. The second has blind arches of the same height and width to either side, with en-delit shafts supporting both the main and flanking arches. There are thus four capitals, all cushions with plain neckings and hollow chamfered imposts with a groove at the bottom of the face. The Three arches have angle rolls and face hollows. There is no label. The interior is plain, continuous and splayed.

N transept, N facade, gallery level (three windows)

Round headed, four orders. As (vii) above but without the billet label. The W aisle gallery window is a post-1699 replacement of the same design but fitted with stone mullions and transom. Interiors are as those in the S transept, see (iii).

N transept, N facade, ground storey (three windows)

Round headed, two orders. The W window is a replacement, copying the original form accurately except for the treatment of the edge of the inner order. The E window of the central vessel shows the original form. The first order is plain and continuous with a step. The second has nook shafts supporting cushion capitals with plain neckings and hollow chamfered imposts with a groove at the bottom of the face. In the arch is an angle roll and face hollow. The label runs continuously the entire height of the window and is carved with a double row of billet. The E aisle window is the same, but its sill is raised to accommodate a round-headed doorway below. On the interior, two orders, the first plain and continuous, the second with en-delit nook shafts, cushion capitals with roll neckings, hollow chamfered imposts with a groove at the bottom of the face, and angle roll and face hollow in the arch.

N transept, W aisle (three windows)

Round headed, two orders. All three are replacements copying the form described at (ix) above inside and out.

N transept, W clerestorey (three windows)

As (xiii) above. The N window belongs to the post-1699 restoration; the other two are largely original. The interior is plain and continuous.

NW transept, W clerestorey

Only the S jamb and part of the arch survives but this is sufficient to show that the design is identical to its counterpart on the SW transept (xxvi).

S transept, E clerestorey (three windows)

Round headed, two orders. The first order is plain and continuous. The second order has nook shafts supporting cushion capitals with angle tucks, plain neckings and hollow chamfered imposts with a groove at the bottom of the face. In the arch is an angle roll and face hollow. The chamfered label has single billet on the chamfer and runs continuously the entire height of the window. To either side is a continuous, round-headed blind arch, lower and narrower than the window, also in single billet. The interior is plain and continuous.

S transept, S clerestorey (two windows)

Round headed, four orders. The first order is plain and continuous. The second order has nook shafts supporting cushion capitals with plain neckings and hollow chamfered imposts with a groove at the bottom of the face. In the arch is an angle roll and face hollow. The third order has plain square jambs with no capitals but imposts as second order and a plain arch. The fourth is the same as the second. The double chamfered label has single billet on each chamfer and runs continuously the entire height of the window. The interior is plain and continuous.

S transept, SE and SW turrets (8 windows)

The octagonal turrets are articulated with two storeys of blind arcading (see below) with an arch to each face. On the upper storey the bays on the cardinal faces are pierced to form round headed windows of two orders, the first plain, the second with nook shafts supporting cushion capitals with plain neckings and hollow chamfered imposts with a groove at the bottom of the face. The arches have angle rolls and face hollows.

S transept, S facade, E and W galleries (two windows)

The aisle gallery windows are smaller than (iii) above but follow the same design. The interior is plain, continuous and splayed.

S transept, S facade, E chapel window

Round headed, one order. Jambs are plain, and there are no capitals or imposts, but the arch springing level corresponds to the chamfered upper edge of the plinth course of the wall, which provides a visual break. The arch has a fat angle roll and a double quirk and thin roll, irregularly carved, on the face. A label is provided by a plain chamfered string course that runs along the wall at the top of the plinth course and breaks up to surround the window head. The interior is plain, continuous and splayed.

S transept, S facade, S gallery (two windows)

Round headed, two orders. The first is plain and continuous. The second has a slightly lower blind arch to either side, with en-delit shafts supporting both the main and flanking arches. There are thus four capitals, all cushions with plain neckings and hollow chamfered imposts with a groove at the bottom of the face. The three arches have angle rolls and face hollows. There is no label. Inside the windows have four orders, first plain and continuous, second and fourth with nook shafts, cushion capitals with roll neckings and hollow chamfered imposts, and an angle roll and face hollow in the arch. The third has plain jambs and arch with a hollow chamfered impost between.

S transept, W aisle (three windows)

Round headed, one order, continuous with quirked angle roll and a slim quirked roll on the face. A label is formed of the string course at springer level which breaks over the window head. The interior is plain, continuous and splayed.

S transept, W clerestorey (three windows)

As (v) above. The interior is plain and continuous.

SW transept, E chapel, gallery (two windows)

As (xix). Both windows are either heavily restored or complete replacements. The interior is plain and continuous.

SW transept, E chapel, ground storey (two windows)

Round headed, two orders. The first order is plain and continuous with a step. The second has en-delit nook shafts supporting cushion capitals with plain neckings and hollow chamfered imposts with a groove at the bottom of the face. In the arch is an angle roll and face hollow. The S window is original in its S side only, the rest of it and the entire N window date from the 1847 restoration. The interior has a plain first order with a stilted second order consisting of a lateral chevron angle roll with cogwheel edge resting on the wall arcade capital.

SW transept, E clerestorey (two windows)

Pointed, three orders. The first order is plain and continuous with a step. The second has en-delit nook shafts with three regularly spaced shaft-rings. Capitals are crockets with roll neckings and chamfered imposts with dogtooth on the chamfers. The arch has an angle roll with face and soffit hollows. The third order has en-delit nook shafts with smaller attached rolls, and shaft-rings of the same profile continuous with those of the second order. Capitals, neckings and imposts also follow the second order design. Between the second and third order nook shafts is a line of dogtooth. In the third order arch is an angle roll decorated with bobbin ornament. The label is double chamfered with dogtooth on both chamfers over the arch. It continues to the foot of the window on either side as a single-chamfered label addossed with a similar feature surrounding the blind arch alongside (see 3.b.(xxi)). The interior is plain and continuous.

SW transept, S clerestorey (two windows)

Pointed, two orders. A reduced version of (xxi) above with the second order omitted and the double-chamfered dogtooth label continuing in the same form down for the entire height of the window. The interior is plain and continuous.

SW transept, SE and SW turrets, top (ninth) storey (20 windows)

The two turrets are decagonal and although the SE turret is more slender than the SW all windows at this level follow the same design. Pointed, three orders. First order plain and continuous; second has en-delit nook shafts in three sections divided by two evenly-spaced shaft-rings, cushion capitals with plain neckings, hollow chamfered imposts with a groove towards the bottom of the face, and angle roll and face hollow in the arch; third as second except that the arch has no face hollow; chamfered label.

SW transept, S gallery (two windows)

Exterior as (xix) above. Inside there are two orders, the first plain and continuous, the second with detached nook shafts, cushion capitals, hollow chamfered imposts with a face groove and an angle roll and face hollow in the arch.

SW transept, S roof level (two windows)

Pointed, three orders. The first is plain, continuous and stepped. The second has en-delit nook shafts supporting cushion capitals with angle wedges. These have roll neckings and hollow chamfered imposts with a groove at the bottom of the face. In the arch is an angle roll with face hollow. The third order is identical to the second, except that the arch has an angle roll but no face hollow. There is a normal chamfered label.

SW transept, W clerestorey (two windows)

As (xxi) except for the treatment of the second order arch, which has a roll of double-quirked frontal chevron on the face. The interior is plain and continuous.

SW transept, W gallery (two windows)

Round headed, four orders. The first order is plain, continuous and stepped. The second has en-delit nook shafts and capitals with roll neckings and roll imposts as follows:

N window, N capital: cushion with angle wedges.

N window, S capital: double scallop.

S window, N capital: cushion with angle tuck and doubled shield.

S window, S capital: multi-scallop.

The arch has a quirked angle roll. The third order is continuous with arch and jambs decorated with point-to-point chevron with lozenges on the angle. The fourth order has en-delit nook shafts and cushion capitals with fluted shields, roll neckings and roll imposts. The arch is decorated with chevron. In the N window there are two stepped rolls of lateral chevron on the face with a cogwheel edge. The S springer of this window is a rogue, however, consisting of a lateral roll and a frontal edge roll separated by a wedge. In the S window there is a higher proportion of these rogues, forming no discernable pattern of alternation. The label is continuous, running down the sides of the window to plinth level. Over the arch it is chamfered with single billet on the chamfer. In the jambs it becomes an element in a triple row of billet between the window and the neighbouring blind arcading. The interior has two orders, the first plain and continuous, the second with nook shafts, cushion capitals and, in the arch, and angle roll and face hollow.

W tower, fourth storey (12 windows)

Three slatted bell-openings on each face of the tower. Pointed, three orders. The first is plain, continuous and stepped. The second and third have en-delit nook shafts, cushion or simple trefoil capitals, hollow chamfered imposts, and an angle roll in the arch. There is a chamfered label.

W tower, third storey (12 windows)

Three windows on each of the four faces of the tower. Pointed, three orders. The first is plain, continuous and stepped. The second and third have en-delit nook shafts, divided into equal sections by two shaft rings, simple trefoil capitals, hollow chamfered imposts, and an angle roll in the arch. There is a chamfered label.

W tower, W face, first storey (three windows)

Pointed, three orders. The first is plain, continuous and stepped. The second and third have en-delit nook shafts, crocket capitals, hollow chamfered imposts, and keeled angle rolls with face and soffit hollows in the arch. There is a chamfered label.

Exterior Decoration

String courses

Billet.

A row of cylindrical billet. Main transept facades, above gallery windows

Billet and lozenge

A double chamfered string course with a row of incised lozenges on the face and a single row of billet on each chamfer. SW transept, bottom of third storey.

Chamfered billet

A chamfered string course with a double row of billet on the face and a double row on the chamfer. SW and NW transepts, top of sixth (clerestorey) storey. W tower, W face, bottom of first storey (continuous with W transept sixth storey)

Chequer pattern

A chamfered string course with single rows of square chequers cut into face and chamfer. S transept turrets, foot of lower storey. S transept turrets, foot of upper storey

Chip-carved saltires

A double-chamfered string course carved on the face and lower chamfer with rows of chip-carved saltire crosses. S transept, W wall at aisle window springing level, breaking over the windows to form labels.

Double billet

Two rows of syncopated cylindrical billet. Main transept facades, below clerestorey windows. N transept, E turret, between fourth and fifth storeys.

Double roll

Two quadrant rolls separated by a groove. W tower, separating every storey

Frontal chevron

A single quirked roll profile frontal chevron. SW and NW transepts, bottom of sixth (clerestorey) storey.

Lateral chevron

A single roll profile lateral chevron with cogwheel lower edge. SW transept, bottom of fourth (gallery) storey.

Sawtooth

A double chamfered string course with single rows of sawtooth on the face and lower chamfer. Main transepts, all walls, below gallery windows. Nave N and S walls, below gallery windows. SW transept chapel, below gallery windows.

Triple billet

Three rows of syncopated cylindrical billet. N transept, N and W walls, below aisle windows. Nave N and S walls, below aisle windows. SW transept chapel, below lower windows. SW transept, bottom of second storey.

Zigzag and spiral

A string course with a roll section below an upright face. The roll is decorated with spiral bands, alternately beading and sawtooth, and the upright has a single row of zigzag in relief. SW and NW transepts, bottom of fifth storey.

Arcading

Cloister, N walk (exterior of S nave aisle wall)

Arcading survives only alongside the Prior's doorway. This is sufficient to indicate a scheme of round five arches per bay. The arcading is carried on en-delit shafts with cushion capitals, plain neckings and hollow chamfered imposts with a double groove enclosing a reed on the lower part of the face. The arches have angle rolls and face hollows.

N transept, N facade, above gallery level windows

Two sections of round-headed blind arcading, five bays each, similar to the arcading on the S facade described at (i).

N transept, N facade, E turret, fourth and fifth storeys

On E and N faces, a blind arch extending through both orders, simply consisting of a double-chamfered shaft with a row of billet on each chamfer. This is combined, in the fourth storey, with the label of (vi) above. Corresponding arches on the W turret are 18thc. copies.

N transept, N facade, E turret, fourth storey

On the E andN faces a single blind arch as (iii) above, but with a single billet label extending down to base level. Corresponding arches on the W turret are 18thc. copies.

N transept, N facade, E turret, sixth storey

An eight-bay arcade running around the turret. The arch design is as (iii) above but there is no label.

NW transept, W face, fifth storey

One entire arch remains and part of a second. The survivor is round headed and of two identical orders, with coursed nook shafts supporting cushion capitals, roll imposts, and arches with an angle roll and face hollow. The arch is blocked with rubble, and may once have been open, as the partial arch surviving to the N of it still is.

NW transept, W face, fourth (gallery) storey

Part of a single blind arch head remains. This has a single order carved with three rows of centrifugal chevron, roll-hollow-roll, with a cogwheel edge. There is a single billet label.

NW transept, W face, sixth (clerestorey) storey

A single arch and quatrefoil survive, of the same types as their counterparts on the S (see (xxi)).

S transept SE and SW turrets, lower level

Each of the cardinal bays that is not obscured by the gable wall contains a single blind arch with en-delit nook shafts supporting cushion capitals with plain neckings, hollow chamfered imposts with a face groove and arches with angle roll and face hollow. Flanking and surrounding each arch is a chamfered label with chip-carved chequers on face and chamfer.

S transept, SE and SW turrets, upper level.

Each of the cardinal faces has a window (see 2 (viii)). The remaining faces have blind arches of the same design (which is the same as (iii) above).

S transept, S facade, above gallery-level windows

Two sections of round-headed blind arcading, five bays each, between the main buttresses of the S facade. The arcade is carried on cylindrical, detached en-delit shafts with high roll-hollow-roll bases and cushion capitals with roll neckings and hollow chamfered imposts with a face groove. Arches have an angle roll and a face hollow.

S transept, S facade, in gable above clerestorey windows.

This level has been rebuilt and the original gable arrangement replaced with a late-medieval window. At either end, however, is the shaft and part of an arch of a blind arcade. The shaft is an en-delit nook shaft on an attic base, and it supports a cushion capital with square necking and a hollow chamfered impost. The round-headed arch shows no evidence of intersections, and has an angle roll and face hollow. There is a chamfered hoodmould decorated on face and chamfer with chip-carved chequers.

SW transept, E and W turrets, eighth storey

Two orders, first round headed, plain and continuous, second trefoil headed with chamfered profile and cusp rolls, trefoil or cushion capitals with angle tucks on en-delit nook shafts.

SW transept, E and W turrets, seventh storey

Pointed, three orders. First plain and continuous, second and third have en-delit nook shafts with cushion capitals, hollow chamfered imposts, and arches with an angle roll and face hollow. The label is chamfered. On the W turret only, a vertical shaft bisects each arch.

SW transept, E chapel, first and second storeys

Each of bays 1, 2, 4 and 5 (counting from the S) contains a single blind arch at each level. The standard design described at (iii), but with no label, is used.

SW transept, E turret second storey

On E turret, a single order arcade consisting of a continuous round headed arch with single billet surround.

SW transept, fifth storey E turret

One order, as second order of (xvii) above.

SW transept, fifth storey S wall

Two orders, first round headed with crocket capitals on attached nook shafts, hollow chamfered imposts and arch with angle roll and face hollow, second as second order of (xvii) above.

SW transept, fifth storey W face

Two orders, first order round headed with crocket capitals on attached nook shafts, hollow chamfered imposts and centripetal chevron on the arch. Second order, trefoil headed with angle roll and face hollow and cusp rolls, crocket capitals on attached nook shafts, imposts as first order.

SW transept, fifth storey W turret

Two orders, first round headed, plain and continuous, second as second order of (xvii) above.

SW transept, fourth (gallery) storey W face

Flanking each window at this level, a blind arch of the same design (see 2.(xxiv)).

SW transept, fourth storey S face

Two orders, both round headed, plain and continuous.

SW transept, fourth storey turrets

One order, round headed, plain and continuous.

SW transept, sixth (clerestorey) storey

Flanking windows on E and W faces, and on turrets. Pointed, one order, clustered en-delit nook shafts with three evenly spaced shaft rings support crocket capitals with chamfered imposts with dogtooth on the chamfer. The arch has an angle roll decorated with bobbin. The label is double chamfered with a row of dogtooth on each chamfer, and extends down to the foot of the arch. Above each arch is a two-order blind oculus, the inner order a quatrefoil with chamfered edge and cusp rolls; the outer circular and double chamfered.

SW transept, third storey turrets

A tall round-headed arcade of two-order units, first plain and continuous, second as (x) above.

SW transept, third storey W face

Twin arches as (x) above enclosed by arches on half shafts to the same design.

SW transept, W face, second storey

On W face, W section of S face and W turret, the standard design described at (iii), but with no label, is used.

W tower, fifth storey angle turrets

One bay on each face of each turret. Pointed, three orders, design as the fifth storey bell openings on the tower face (2.(xxx)) except that the first order is not stepped.

W tower, first storey angle turrets

Three bays on each face of each turret, alongside the roofline, two orders. The first is plain, continuous and round headed. The second has a chamfered trefoil head with cusp rolls carried on nook shafts with trefoil or double scallop capitals and hollow chamfered imposts.

W tower, fourth storey

Two bays on each face of each turret, three sets of three bays on each face. Design as SW transept, E and W turrets, eighth storey (xxiii), and from that side the arcades are visually contiguous.

W tower, second storey

Two bays on each face of each turret, eight on each tower face, split into two runs of four by the roofline. Two orders. The first has trefoil or cushion capitals on en-delit nook shafts and a plain, round arch. The second has a chamfered trefoil head with cusp rolls carried on nook shafts with trefoil or double scallop capitals. All imposts are hollow chamfered.

W tower, sixth storey

Five openings per side, three on the main face and one on each turret. Openings are two-order oculi, apparently blind. The first order is a chamfered quatrefoil with cusp rolls, the second circular with an angle roll surrounded by a chamfered label.

W tower, third storey angle turrets

One bay on each face of each turret. Pointed, three orders, design as the third storey windows on the tower face (2.(xxix)) except that the first order is not stepped.

Corbel tables, corbels

Nave N face, gallery

12 bays of segmental, single billet cusping supported by corbels.

Bay 10 L to R:

1. Lizard-like head with round eyes and drilled pupils, long snout and small round ears.

2. Fat human head with drilled pupils, fat cheeks, moustache and bristly beard.

3. Dog's head with floppy ears and drilled pupils.

4. Grotesque human head with high ears, drilled pupils and tongue just projecting between teeth.

5. Deer's head (?) with ears and short horns.

Bay 11 L to R:

1. Dog's head with ears flopping back and forward, drilled pupils and concave cheeks.

2. Round human head with drilled pupils and narrow mouth.

3. Reptilian head with drilled pupils and long pointed snout.

4. Composite human / cat head with rounded ears, drilled pupils and thin, downturned mouth.

5. Bird's head (owl?) with small pointed ears.

Bay 12 L to R:

1. Human head with caplike reeded hair and projecting tongue.

2. Grotesque human head with round eyes with drilled pupils, ears on temples, wide philtrum and wide mouth with pointed teeth.

3. Composite human / dog head with drilled pupils and open mouth showing tongue within.

4. Human head turning L, with long hair at sides, bald at front, recessed eye sockets and oval mouth showing teeth. Top of corbel replaced but head original.

Bay 1 (E) L to R:

1. Human head with caplike hair and down-turned mouth.

2. Human head with caplike hair, broad nose and tongue just projecting.

3. Human head with buffalo's horns.

4. Female head with sad mouth.

5. Devil's head with long pointed ears.

6. Concealed by rainwater head.

Bay 2 L to R:

1. Human head with moustache.

2. uman head with caplike hair, wrinkled nose and moustache.

3. Human head with pointed ears and small mouth.

4. Devil's head with pointed ears, round eyes and prominent teeth.

5. Doglike head with wrinkled nose and pointed ears.

6. Human head turning L with open mouth, R half lost.

7. Human head with caplike hair and open mouth.

Bay 3 L to R:

1. Grotesque human head with pointed ears and projecting tongue turned to R.

2. Human head with caplike hair and small open mouth.

3. Chubby human head with wavy hair and mouth open.

4. Human head with ball in mouth.

5. Grotesque human head with pointed ears and moustache. Wide-open mouth with something inside.

6. Catlike head with upturned snout and open mouth.

Bay 4 L to R:

1. Replacement.

2. Human head with curly hair and ball in mouth, turning R to face corbel 3.

3. Human head with hand to brow and projecting tongue turning L to face corbel 2.

4. Replacement.

5. Grotesque catlike head with pointed ears and moustache.

Bay 5 L to R:

1. Grotesque human head with drilled pupils and pointed nose turning L.

2. Human head with large oval mouth showing curled tongue.

3. Composite human head with pointed ears.

4. Composite human head with oval beast's ears turned to L.

5. Camel-like head with round skull and pointed ears.

Bay 6 L to R:

1. Double head. At the top a catlike head with pointed ears and grooved snout. Its upper lip forms the brow of a human head below.

2. Beast head with pointed ears and large mouth with reeded tongue projecting.

3. Bird's head, missing section at R.

4. Cherubic human head with loss at upper R.

5. Beast head with pointed ears and large mouth with tongue projecting.

6. Human head with drilled pupils, partly hidden by rainwater head.

Bay 7 L to R:

1. Doglike head with small ears, hollow eyes, prominent cheeks and duck's beak.

2. Human head with drilled pupils, narrow mouth and straight moustache.

3. Doglike head with large eye-sockets, drilled pupils and prominent upper teeth.

4. Human head with drilled pupils, bobbed hair and narrow mouth.

5. Wolf's head gripping object between its teeth.

Bay 8 L to R:

1. Human head with drilled pupils and narrow square jaw.

2. Dog's head with drilled pupils, floppy ears and bared teeth.

3. Fat human head with drilled pupils and small thin mouth.

4. Composite beast head with drilled pupils, small ears and duck's bill.

5. Human head with ears high on temples, drilled pupils and straight moustache.

Bay 9 L to R:

1. Bird's head with ears, drilled pupils and nostrils, and hawk-like beak.

2. Human head with bobbed hair, drilled pupils and tongue just projecting.

3. Snake's or reptile's head with open mouth to show pointed teeth slanted back for tearing.

4. Human head with curly hair, drilled pupils, triangular nose and narrow straight mouth.

5. Horse-like head with conical ears and prominent nostrils.

Nave N wall, clerestorey

12 bays of segmental, single billet cusping supported by corbels.

Bay 10 L to R:

1. Beast head with human nose, pointed ears and wide mouth gripping object.

2. Composite human head with beast ears, bulging eyes and moustache.

3. Damaged beast corbel with small head and body below.

4. Fat human head.

5. Human head with tragic mouth.

6. Human head with open smiling mouth and bulging eyes.

Bay 11 L to R:

1. Human head with bulging eyes.

2. Composite human head with beast ears, bulging eyes and open mouth.

3. Human head with crown, bulging eyes and narrow mouth.

4. Grotesque beast head with long wrinkled snout and bulging eyes.

5. Metamorphosed human head with foliage scrolls above and a clasped tapered roll below the nose.

6. Modern replacement.

Bay 12 L to R:

1. Bird's head with object gripped in beak.

2. Modern replacement.

3. Worn human head with tragic mouth.

4. Devil's head with horns and wide grinning mouth.

5. Human head turning L, with caplike straight hair, bulging eyes and sad, closed mouth.

6. Doglike head with open mouth.

Bay 1 (E) L to R:

1. Devilish human head with pointed ears and oval mouth.

2. Human head with cylinder gripped in mouth.

3. Human head with caplike hair, strange circular opening below nose and wide mouth with prominent square teeth.

4. Human head with wrinkled brow, bulging eyes and downturned open mouth.

5. Wrinkled doglike head.

Bay 2 L to R :

1. Human head with bulging eyes and sad mouth.

2. Human head with bulging eyes and round horns or bicorn hat.

3. Human head with bulging eyes and projecting tongue.

4. Human head with bulging eyes and reeded hair.

5. Devilish head with straight pointed horns and sad mouth.

6. Composite human/ dog head with wide smiling mouth and projecting tongue.

Bay 3 L to R :

1. Human head with bulging eyes and oval mouth.

2. Devil's head with bulging eyes and drilled pupils, curly horns and projecting tongue.

3. Grotesque head turning R with bulging eyes and wide oblong mouth.

4. Grotesque birdlike head with pointed ears, bulging eyes and drilled pupils.

5. Grotesque birdlike head with bulging eyes and drilled pupils, thick lips and projecting tongue.

6. Human head with cap of curly hair, bulging eyes and oval mouth.

7. Ass's head with long ears and bulging eyes with drilled pupils.

Bay 4 L to R :

1. Head with pointed horns and tongue projecting.

2. Head with pointed horns, wide open mouth and tongue projecting.

3. Composite human head with pointed ears and wide grinning mouth.

4. Human head with caplike curly hair and small downturned mouth.

5. Composite human head with pointed horns and tragic mouth.

6. Human head with caplike curly hair.

7. Doglike head with projecting tongue.

Bay 5 L to R:

1. Grotesque and heavily schematised head with bulging eyes, pointed ears and round mouth.

2. Human head with tiny (whistling?) mouth.

3. Human head with open mouth.

4. Human head with smiling mouth.

5. Human head with small, open mouth, R half lost.

6. Human figure, head has pointed chin.

7. Bird with pointed beak (?), worn.

Bay 6 L to R:

1. Doglike head with wide mouth, bulging eyes and ears flopping forward.

2. Human head with curly hair and small open mouth.

3. Doglike head with wide open mouth and prominent canine teeth.

4. Horse's head with bridle.

5. Human head with tiny oval mouth and caplike curly hair.

6. Human head with open sad mouth.

7. Human head with open sad mouth.

Bay 7 L to R:

1. Human head with straight moustache and small oval mouth.

2. Human head gripping object in mouth.

3. Human head with straight moustache and narrow, downturned mouth.

4. Sad human head with jewelled circlet (?).

5. Human head turning R with straight hair and open mouth.

6. Human head with bulging eyes, broad nose, curly hair and tragic mouth.

7. Human head with ridged skull.

Bay 8 L to R:

1. Human head with foliage scroll above, moustache and bulging eyes.

2. Grotesque beast head with bulging eyes, wrinkled snout and short pointed horns.

3. Tight-lipped human head.

4. Doglike head with bulging eyes and large open mouth.

5. Human head with curly hair (?), worn.

6. Human head with bulbous nose, worn.

7. Round devil's head with pointed straight horns and dumbbell-shaped mouth.

Bay 9 L to R:

1. Human head, damaged at crown.

2. Grotesque doglike head with short pointed ears.

3. Human head turned R with sinuously folded head-dress.

4. Composite human head with short pointed ears or horns and downturned moustache.

5. Modern replacement.

6. Badly worn beast head with long blunt snout.

Nave S face, clerestorey

12 bays of segmental, single billet cusping supported by corbels.

Bay 10 L to R:

1. Catlike devil's head with curved horns and wide mouth.

2. Composite human head with pointed ears.

3. Catlike grotesque human head with pointed ears and large eyes, gripping ring in mouth.

4. Dog's head with pointed ears holding human hands either side of snout (Cynocephalus?)

5. Human head with buffalo's horns.

6. Human head with pointed ears and froglike mouth.

Bay 11 L to R:

1. Geometrical: raised saltire on two stepped rolls, rectangular design.

2. Human, eyeless (?) head with small open mouth.

3. Bird's head with pointed beak and ears.

4. Oval human head with sad mouth.

5. Human head with moustache and tragic mouth.

Bay 12 L to R:

1. Composite human head with duck bill.

2. Human head elaborate head-dress and chubby cheeks.

3. Horse's head with bridle.

4. Worn human head with small mouth.

5. Human head with wrinkled brow.

Bay 1 (E) L to R :

1. Badly worn and broken.

2. Composite human head with duck's bill and projecting tongue.

3. Human head turning L with toothache.

4. Human head with tragic mouth, thick lips and tongue projecting.

5. Human head with wide mouth and long canines.

6. Human head, R half lost, L hand to mouth.

Bay 2 L to R:

1. Grotesque human head with long teeth, wide mouth and doglike nose.

2. Human head with skullcap and sad.

3. Human head with devil's horns and oval mouth.

4. Doglike head with pointed ears and tongue projecting 5. Human head with skullcap, puffed cheeks and oval mouth.

5. Human head with ball in mouth.

Bay 3 L to R:

1. Grotesque human head with ball in mouth.

2. Chubby human head with small ball in mouth.

3. Human head turning L with bobbed hair and broken ball (?) in mouth.

4. Bird head with pointed beak and small pointed ears.

5. Lost.

6. Human head with caplike hair and sad mouth.

Bay 4 L to R:

1. Doglike head with wide mouth.

2. Human head with mouth open.

3. Human head with both hands in mouth.

4. Human head with mouth open.

5. Human head with moustache and open mouth.

6. Worn human head with curly caplike hair.

Bay 5 L to R:

1. Sad human head with curly hair.

2. Human head gripping cylinder in mouth.

3. Wrinkled doglike head with pointed ears and projecting tongue 4. Human head turning L with curly caplike hair and large pointed nose.

4. Catlike head. Mouth damaged.

5. Human head with curved horns and oval mouth.

Bay 6 L to R:

1. Doglike head with devil's horns and two long teeth in wide open mouth.

2. Cat's head with whiskers, pointed ears and tragic mouth.

3. Human head with cap.

4. Human head with caplike hair, moustache and beard.

5. Female exhibitionist.

6. Human head with small open mouth.

Bay 7 L to R:

1. Dog's head with pointed ears and projecting tongue.

2. Inverted, oblique human head with caplike hair.

3. Human head with moustache and goatee beard, R half lost.

4. Doglike human head with pointed ears and tongue (?) visible in mouth.

5. Catlike human head with pointed ears and open mouth.

6. Grotesque and schematically carved head, badly worn.

Bay 8 L to R:

1. Doglike human head with pointed ears, thick lips and hands (?) in mouth.

2. Human head with hand on R in mouth.

3. Grotesque head with curly horns, long snout and projecting tongue.

4. Grotesque head with curly horns or hat and long wrinkled snout.

5. Human head with caplike hair, moustache and sad mouth.

6. Human head, cracked across middle, with short nose and small oval mouth.

7. Grotesque human head with curly horns and ball in mouth.

Bay 9 L to R:

1. Human head with bobbed hair and sad mouth.

2. Human head with curly hair and oval mouth.

3. Doglike human head with pointed ears and wide mouth with thick lips.

4. Composite human head with pointed ears and oval mouth.

5. Grotesque human head with curly horns and wide mouth.

6. Inverted human head with curly hair and spiralling horns.

N transept, E face, clerestorey

Three bays of segmental, single billet cusping supported by corbels.

Bay 1 (S) L to R:

1. Dog's head with long snout.

2. Human head with bobbed hair.

3. Dragon's head with sharp teeth.

4. Catlike head with long snout.

5. Duck's head (?) with projecting tongue.

6. Human head with vertical mortar repair.

Bay 2 L to R:

1. Human head with tragic mouth.

2. Duck's head (?).

3. Demonic human head with pointed ears.

4. Snakelike head with pointed snout.

5. Human head with round mouth and bobbed hair.

6. Beast head with pointed ears.

Bay 3 L to R:

1. Human head, L half lost.

2. Human head with moustache and beard.

3. Devil's head with pointed ears.

4. Human head with round mouth and bobbed hair.

5. Human head with moustache and pointed beard.

6. Human head with sad mouth and bobbed hair.

7. Human head with round mouth and bobbed hair.

N transept, E face, gallery

Three bays of segmental, single billet cusping supported by corbels.

Bay 1 (S) L to R:

1. Human head turned L with tragic mouth and bobbed hair.

2. Human head turned R with moustache and bobbed hair.

3. Grotesque human head with ball in large oval mouth.

4. Human head turned L with tongue projecting and bobbed hair.

Bay 2 L to R:

1. Human head turned R with tragic mouth.

2. Grotesque human head with tongue projecting.

3. Human head turned L with moustache, beard and bobbed hair.

4. Human head with tragic mouth.

5. Human head turned R with bobbed hair.

6. Beast head with pointed ears.

Bay 3 L to R:

1. Human head with moustache.

2. Dog's head.

3. Human head with tragic mouth.

4. Human head with moustache.

5. Dragon (?) head.

6. Human head with tragic mouth.

N transept, E turret, lower level

Too worn to describe.

N transept, E turret, upper level

Sixteen bays of segmental, single billet cusping supported by corbels, syncopated with the angles of the octagonal roof. Corbels are not individually described, but belong to the same group as those on the transept clerestorey. Most are human heads with bulging eyes and mouths either wide open or small and downturned. At least one has the duckbill seen, e.g. at (xii), bay 2, no.5.

N transept, W face, clerestorey

Three bays of segmental, single billet cusping supported by corbels. All the N bay corbels are replacements.

Bay 1 (S) L to R:

1. Human head with caplike hair and sad mouth.

2. Human head with caplike hair, no mouth, pointed beard.

3. Human head with caplike hair and tragic mouth.

4. Beast head with long snout and curly horns.

5. Human head with caplike hair and pointed beard.

Bay 2 L to R:

1. Duck's head.

2. Human head with projecting tongue.

3. Lost.

4. Composite human head with pointed ears, puffed cheeks and round mouth.

5. Duck's head.

6. Human head with caplike hair and sad mouth.

N transept, W face, gallery

Three bays of segmental, single billet cusping supported by corbels. The entire N bay and the C bay except for the easternmost corbel are replacements.

Bay 1 (S) L to R:

1. Human head with skullcap, moustache and sad mouth.

2. Chubby human head with curly hair and oval mouth.

3. Lion's head with mane and projecting tongue.

4. Human head with caplike hair, bulging eyes and oval mouth.

5. Human head with caplike hair, sad mouth and beard.

6. Human head with caplike hair, grotesquely downturned open mouth and teeth.

Bay 2 L to R:

1–6: replacements

7. Grotesque head with plentiful teeth, wide open mouth and eyes with prominent lids and drilled pupils.

NW transept, E clerestorey

Only the two southernmost corbels survive in this area. The trefoil cusped design of the corbel table is the same as (xviii).

L to R:

1. Composite human head with curly hair but wrinkled dog's snout and open mouth.

2. Human head with puffy cheeks, deep nasolabial folds, upper and lower lips almost meeting in the centre and curly beard.

NW transept, E clerestorey at angle with nave

As on the S (xvii), a chamfered string course with four rows of billet bridges the angle between the similar string course above the corbel table on the E face of the SW transept at clerestorey level and the S nave clerestorey corbel table. At the centre of this diagonal member is a single large corbel of a naturalistic human head with hair and short beard in a line of large curls, bulging eyes, ears in the right place, and a small mouth. It is probably a later replacement.

NW transept, W face, fifth storey

At the top of the fifth storey, immediately below the frontal chevron string course is a line of corbels with no table, as (xxiii), but only the first three survive.

L to R:

1. Worn human head with signs of deeply dished eye sockets.

2. Human head with downturned mouth and deep nasolabial folds.

3. Devil's head with short horns and projecting tongue.

NW transept, W face, fourth (gallery) storey

Arrangement of corbels as (xxii) but only the southernmost three corbels survive.

L to R:

1. Worn head, losses to top L and lower jaw.

2. Worn head, signs of a curly moustache.

3. Human head with strands of long hair to either side, puffy cheeks and straight mouth.

NW transept, W face, sixth (clerestorey) storey

Trefoil cusped corbel table (as xxiv), only the first two corbels survive.

L to R:

1. Composite human head with pointed wolf's ears, moustache, short beard and oval mouth.

2. Beast head with pointed ears, open mouth and wrinkled snout.

S transept, E face, clerestorey

Three bays of segmental, single billet cusping supported by corbels.

Bay 1 (N) L to R:

1. Human head with tragic mouth.

2. Human (devil) head with horns.

3. Human head gripping cylindrical object between pointed teeth.

4. Human head with hands to mouth.

5. Human head.

Bay 2 L to R:

1. Human head with long pointed beard and moustache.

2. Human head with hands to mouth.

3. Doglike head with pointed ears.

4. Human head with tongue projecting.

5. Human head with moustache.

6. Human head with helmet and catlike whiskers.

Bay 3 L to R:

1. Doglike head.

2. Modern replacement.

3. Sad human head with cap.

4. Human head pulling mouth open.

5. Human head .

6. Human head with curly beard and moustache.

S transept, E turret, lower level

Three corbels at heads of shafts on the four canted faces of the turret. All too worn to describe except for modern replacements (e.g. on SW face).

S transept, E turret, upper level

Corbel table of segmental billet cusping, two bays per face of the octagonal turret. There is thus a corbel at each angle and one in the centre of each face, 16 in all, numbered clockwise from the centre of the E face:

1. Human head with open mouth.

2. Human head with hands to mouth.

3. Human head.

4. Human head with grotesquely large (fish) mouth.

5. Human head.

6. Human head with grotesquely large (fish) mouth.

7. Doglike human head with tragic mouth.

8. Sad human head.

9. Human head with pointed nose and moustache.

10. Human head with moustache.

11. Human head with tragic mouth.

12. Human head with round mouth.

13. Ram's head with curly horns.

14. Grotesque head gripping object in mouth.

15. Cat head with large mouth showing tongue inside.

16. Bird's head with pointed beak.

S transept, W face, clerestorey

Three bays of segmental, single billet cusping supported by corbels.

Bay 1 (N) L to R:

1. Human head turned R with round mouth.

2. Human head with hands over eyes.

3. Human head turned L with wide mouth.

4. Human head turned R with R hand to mouth.

5. Human head with moustache and forked beard.

Bay 2 L to R:

1. Human head turned R with R hand to ear.

2. Human head with tragic mouth.

3. Human head turned L with ball (?) in mouth.

4. Human head with straight moustache and short beard.

5. Devil head with spiky ears and pointed crest.

6. Composite human head with short pointed ears and moustache.

Bay 3 L to R:

1. Human head with wide mouth.

2. Simian head with projecting tongue.

3. Human head with curly hair and wide straight mouth.

4. Human head with moustache.

5. Human "mouth puller" head to R.

S transept, W turret, lower level

Three corbels at heads of shafts on the four canted faces of the turret. All too worn to describe except for modern replacements.

S transept, W turret, upper level

Corbel table of segmental billet cusping, two bays per face of the octagonal turret. There is thus a corbel at each angle and one in the centre of each face, 16 in all, numbered clockwise from the centre of the E face.

1. Human head with wide mouth and doglike floppy ears.

2. Human head with long moustache.

3. Grotesque human / dog head with wide mouth and tongue projecting.

4. Bird's head with pointed beak.

5. Dog head with projecting tongue.

6. Human head with wide smiling mouth and projecting tongue.

7. Human head with wide mouth and projecting tongue.

8. Human head with tragic mouth.

9. Doglike head with wide oval mouth.

10. Reptilian head with wide mouth.

11. Bird's head with short beak.

12. Human head with long, rising moustache.

13. Doglike head with wide mouth.

14. Bird's head with pointed beak.

15. Human head, worn.

16. Beast (?) head with wide oval mouth.

SW transept, E chapel

The entire corbel table belongs to the 1848 restoration of the chapel, but the design of segmental billet cusping matches the corbel tables around the nave and main transept of the cathedral, and individual corbels are often copies of original ones.

SW transept, E clerestorey

Two bays of chamfered trefoil cusping emphasised by a face groove, and with rolls at the cusps, supported by corbels. The human heads are distinguished by pointed noses, usually short with prominent nostrils, and marked nasolabial folds.

Bay 1 (N), L to R:

1. Elongated human head with grimacing mouth.

2. Human head with heavy jowls and wrinkled cheeks.

3. Grotesque human head with wide open mouth showing tongue and teeth.

4. Square human head with tragic mouth, narrow nose and wrinkled cheeks.

5. Square human head with small tragic mouth and wrinkled cheeks.

6. Grimacing human head with tongue projecting and upper teeth bared.

7. Apelike, worn human head with open mouth joined at centre.

8. Sad human head with prominent brow ridge and nose ascending into forehead.

9. Fleshy human head with closed mouth.

Bay 2 L to R:

1. Human head with long upper lip and prominent nose.

2. Camel's head (?) with bridle.

3. Composite human head with prominent jaw and wide mouth but beast's ears.

4. Dragon head with wrinkled snout, small ears and mouth open.

5. Composite human head with small sad mouth and pointed nose but cat's ears.

6. Grotesque human head with wide grimacing mouth.

7. Worn human head with small pointed nose, small downturned mouth with bared teeth, and below, to either side, hands (?) supporting the chin.

8. Human head with straight mouth and pointed nose.

9. Human head with short, thin nose and downturned mouth.

10. Human head with heavy jowls, short nose and straight mouth.

11. Smiling human head with short nose and very marked nasolabial folds.

SW transept, E clerestorey at angle with nave

A chamfered string course with four rows of billet bridges the angle between the similar string course above the corbel table on the E face of the SW transept at clerestorey level and the S nave clerestorey corbel table. At the centre of this diagonal member is a single large corbel of a grotesque beast head with bulging eyes and lines of wrinkles below them. The mouth is wide with bared teeth.

SW transept, SE turret

At the top of the turret, immediately below the battlements, is a continuous trefoil cusped corbel table (as xviii) with a corbel at each angle of the turret and three on each face, 40 in all. Detailed examination was impossible owing to the height of the corbels, but the suite is dominated by human heads with a few grotesque and beast heads, as (xviii).

SW transept, SW turret

At the top of the turret, immediately below the battlements, is a continuous trefoil cusped corbel table (as xviii) with a corbel at each angle of the turret and three on each face, 40 in all. Detailed examination was impossible owing to the height of the corbels, but the suite is dominated by human heads with a few grotesque and beast heads, as (xviii).

SW transept, W face, fifth storey

At the top of the fifth storey, immediately below the frontal chevron string course is a line of corbels with no table. Human heads where they appear are comically broad and have marked nasolabial folds.

Bay 1 (N) L to R:

1. Frowning human head.

2. Smiling human head.

3. Modern replacement.

4. Human head, too worn to describe.

5. Worn corbel.

6. Worn corbel.

7. Modern replacement.

8. Worn corbel.

9. Worn human head with heavy brow.

Bay 2 L to R:

1. Worn head with pig's snout.

2. Human head with tragic mouth.

3. Very broad human head with deeply recessed eyes and tragic mouth.

4. Worn human head with oval mouth.

5. Worn head with marked eyebrows, and tragic mouth.

6. Modern replacement.

7. Very broad human head with puffy cheeks and wide oval mouth.

8. Modern replacement.

9. Grotesque, composite human / beast head with wrinkled snout, bulging eyes and wide mouth with bared teeth.

SW transept, W face, fourth (gallery) storey

At the top of the fourth storey, immediately below the string course is a line of corbels with no table.

Bay 1 (N) L to R:

1.Human head with broad nose and open mouth turning to R.

2. Lion's head.

3. Human head with long moustache and bulging eyes under arched brows.

4. Worn chubby human (?) head with long hair.

5. Badly worn.

6. Bald human head, possibly a replacement.

7. Lion's head.

8. Worn human head.

9. Badly worn.

Bay 2 (S) L to R:

1. Broken off.

2. Badly worn, open mouth survives.

3. Badly worn.

4. Human head with spiky hair, pointed nose and thick lips.

5. Gaunt human head with open mouth, L part missing.

6. Badly worn, appears to have a tragic mouth.

7. Badly worn, may be a composite human / beast head with wide open mouth.

8. Badly worn, open mouth and ears survive.

9. Worn helical form (snake?).

SW transept, W face, sixth (clerestorey) storey

At the top of the sixth storey is a continuous trefoil cusped corbel table (as xviii). At the same level, at the top of the respond dividing the two bays is a single corbel. All human heads have marled nasolabial folds as those on the E face of the SW transept (xviii).

Bay 1 (N) L to R:

1. Human mask with tragic mouth.

2. Prognathous human head with projecting tongue and upper teeth shown.

3. Smiling human head with broad mouth.

4. Chubby human head with closed mouth.

5. Human head with closed mouth.

6. Human head with puffed cheeks and square jaw.

7. Grotesque human head with broad nose, open mouth and projecting tongue.

8. Human head with cat's ears and mouth open at ends only.

9. Demonic human mask with tongue projecting.

Bay 2 L to R:

1. Round smiling human head with central groove on crown.

2. Human head with low brow and long upper lip.

3. Human head with drooping moustache and beard.

4. Human head with tiny nose and downturned mouth.

5. Human head with pointed beard.

6. Smiling human head with square jaw.

7. Human head with small pointed chin and tongue projecting.

8. Replacement.

9. Round human head with chubby cheeks and downturned mouth.

Central respond:

Human head with slightly downturned mouth.

SW transept, W face, third storey

At the top of the third storey, immediately below the chevron string course is a line of corbels with no table. All are worn and indistinguishable except the modern replacement in bay 1 (N), 1 and 3.

W tower (top), E face

Below the battlements at the top of the 12thc. part of the tower. Trefoil cusped corbel table (as xviii). There are 13 bays of cusping and 14 corbels of a geometric design, T-shaped, outlined by a groove, with rounded angles and rolls under the arms.

W tower (top), N face

As (xxxi).

W tower (top), S face

As (xxxi).

W tower (top), W face

The corbel table is of the same design as (xxxi) but the corbels are heads, generally human with deep nasolabial folds, as follows.

L to R:

1. Human head with snub nose and projecting tongue.

2. Dog's head with round open mouth and projecting tongue.

3. Fat human head with downturned mouth.

4. Human head with straight open mouth and projecting jaw.

5. Badly eroded human head with downturned mouth.

6. Human head with apelike downturned mouth.

7. Human head with comic mouth and prominent brows.

8. Bird's head with short pointed beak.

9. Dog's head.

10. Round human head with straight mouth.

11. Sad human head with long pointed chin and downturned mouth.

12. Human head with downturned mouth.

13. Human head with lips joined at centre and tongue visible within.

14. Human head showing tip of tongue.

W tower, W face only, below lowest windows

A continuous trefoil cusped corbel table with rolls on the cusps, visible only obliquely from the ground owing to the addition of the W porch.

1. Human head with hands to open mouth.

2. Grotesque human head with open moth showing teeth.

3. Worn composite human / beast head with doglike ears, upturned nose and tragic mouth.

4. Worn composite human / beast head with catlike ears and wide open, grimacing mouth

5. Worn human head with upturned nose and marked nasolabial folds.

6. Beast head with wrinkled snout.

7. Human head with recessed eyes, straight nose, moustache and lantern jaw.

8. Comic composite human head with marked nasolabial folds and pointed nose and ears.

9. Comic composite human head with marked nasolabial folds, pointed ears at the sides of a pear-shaped head.

10. Composite human head with gaping, fishlike mouth.

11. Human head with marked nasolabial folds and cap covering ears.

12. Human head with a pair of leaves issuing from the mouth.

13. Composite human head set obliquely with catlike ears and marked nasolabial folds.

Miscellaneous

Diapering on W face of SW and NW transepts, fourth (gallery) storey.

Each unit has a single chip-carved sawtooth.

Diapering on W face of SW transept, sixth (clerestorey) storey.

Up to capital level only, each unit has a pair of wedges incised.

Interior Features

Arches

Tower/Transept arches

NW transept, arch into N nave aisle

See c.(ii) below.

NW transept, E chapel arch

This survives only in its S jamb and capitals and the S part of the arch. Round-headed, 3 orders to E and W. All orders are carried on coursed half-columns facing across the arch. Neckings are square and imposts hollow chamfered with a roll at the angle between face and chamfer. Capitals are cushions with some variation, as described below.

First order (shared):

The arch is lost entirely. The capital is a cushion with keeled angles.

Second order, E face:

The capital is a cushion with keeled angles, the arch follows the same design as its equivalent in the SW transept.

Second order, W face:

Plain cushion capital. The arch appears to follow the same design as its equivalent in the SW transept, but its face is obscured by later consolidation.

Third order, E face:

Plain cushion capital, square arch as in the SW transept.

Third order, W face:

plain cushion capital. The impost is a square replacement, and what remains of the arch follows the same design as its equivalent in the SW transept.

SW transept, arch into nave S aisle.

See c.(i) below.

SW transept, E chapel arch

Round-headed, 3 orders to E and W. All orders are carried on coursed half-columns facing across the arch. Neckings are square and imposts hollow chamfered with a roll at the angle between face and chamfer. Capitals are cushions with some variation, as described below.

First order (shared):

N and S capitals are plain cushions. The arch has a broad soffit roll with quirked angle rolls to E and W.

Second order, E face:

Capitals are both plain cushions. The arch has rolls on face and soffit with a narrow quirk between them on the angle.

Second order, W face:

The N capital is a plain cushion, the S has fluting on the bell. The arch is carved with point-to-point chevron, a roll with a flat fillet outside it on face and soffit, with nailheads in the lozenges on the angle.

Third order, E face:

Plain cushion capitals, the N with a keel on the angle. The arch is plain and square.

Third order, W face:

Capitals are cushions, the N with a keel at the angle and fluting on the W face only, the S plain. In the arch are 3 stepped rows of lateral chevron on face and soffit, all fillets and nested at the angle.

W tower arches

Inner faces of 12thc. tower arches survive above the later arches. Each is pointed with two stepped rows of hyphenated frontal chevron separated by a thin roll. Outside the outer row of chevron is another thin roll and a chamfered label.

Nave arches

Nave N aisle into NW transept

Round headed, originally 2 orders. The arch is blocked, and nothing of the jambs or capitals survives. Part of the W face of the arch survives, and is identical to the 2nd order in the SW transept (which is a double order — see c.(i) above).

Nave, S aisle into SW transept

Round headed, two orders to W and E.

First order (shared)

Three half columns, the central one thinner, with cushion capitals, plain chamfered neckings and hollow chamfered imposts with a face groove. The soffit is plain. The E and W faces of the arch are carved with three stepped rows of lateral chevron, roll, hollow, roll.

Second order E face

On half columns with capitals, neckings and imposts as first order. The arch has a plain soffit and is carved with five rows of lateral chevron on the face as follows: hollow, stepped fillet, hollow, stepped fillet, hollow. Outside this is a thin roll.

Second order W face

As E face, then another chevron order in the arch only consisting of three stepped rolls of lateral face chevron with quirks between.

Arcades

N transept, E arcade

Three bays, round-headed. As in the S transept, the E arcade is of two plain orders towards the central vessel, one towards the chapels, and carried on alternating round and compound piers, but as noted in the General Description, piers 1 and 3 are compound and only pier 2 is circular. The N respond is also of compound form. The N chapel now acts as the vestibule to the Lady Chapel, and the bay has been blocked except for a small doorway. The N part of this bay is cut into by the arcade supporting the N platform, the N respond of the arcade is therefore only visible inside the Lady Chapel vestibule. The disposition of capitals is as already described for the S transept arcade. All capitals are of identical form: plain block capitals with keeled angle leaves terminating in volutes at the top. Unlike the S arcade, there is no foliage or animal carving.

N transept, N arcade

Fve bays, round headed, single order. The bays are alternately narrow (odd numbered bays) and broad (even numbers). There are angle rolls in the arch and the supports are slender circular piers with low cushion capitals with square neckings and chamfered imposts with a groove at the bottom of the face. Only the two easternmost bays and the column, capital and a few courses of the E side of the arch of the third are original. The W bays belong to the post-1699 restoration.

N transept, W arcade

Three bays, round-headed. Like the E arcade, the W arcade is of two plain orders towards the central vessel, one towards the chapels, and carried on alternating round and compound piers, piers 1 and 3 compound and only pier 2 circular. The N respond postdates the 1699 collapse. The transverse arches and diagonal groins of the W aisle vault also spring from the arcade piers. Where the piers are compound, nook shafts are added for the diagonal groins, and responds with half columns for the transverse arches. On the circular pier, the diagonal groin capitals share the circular pier with the main arcade capitals, and a respond and half column is added to the back of it for the transverse arch. Details of the vaulting capitals are given in section 4.b. (iv) below. All capitals are plain cushions, the larger ones with slightly keeled angles. Imposts are hollow chamfered with a roll at the junction of face and chamfer. Neckings are squared off rather than rolls. The capitals of bay 3 are replacements.

S transept, S arcade

6 bays, round headed, single order. Originally of six regular bays, but the E part of the E bay (bay 1) is cut away by the later stair turret. The arcade has angle rolls in the arch and is carried on slender circular piers with low cushion capitals with square neckings and chamfered imposts with a groove at the bottom of the face.

S transept, W arcade

Three bays, round-headed. As S transept E arcade, with two plain orders towards the central vessel, one towards the aisle, and carried on alternating round and compound piers. All capitals are plain block capitals with keeled angle leaves terminating in volutes at the top. Unlike the E arcade, there is no foliage or animal carving, but there is a good deal of 19thc. painted ornament. The aisle was screened from the central vessel, probably c.1130, and now serves as a vestry.

Transept

S transept, E arcade

Three bays, round-headed. The arcade is of two plain orders towards the central vessel, one towards the chapel, and is carried on alternating round and compound piers. Bays 1 and 2 are blocked but the blocking material is not thick enough to obscure much of the capital sculpture. The arches, capitals, neckings and impost chamfers facing the central vessel were picked out in blue and red paint in the 19thc. All shaft bases have a hollow chamfer on a roll.

Pier 1:

Half-round (originally circular but now incorporated into the Octagon pier).The pier carries capitals for both orders of the arcade to the W, and the NW vault capital of chapel 1 (now part of the Old Library). The capitals share a roll necking that follows the form of the pier below rather than the individual capitals, and have chamfered imposts with rolls at the upper and lower edges of the chamfer.

First order (shared): block capital with flat leaves terminating in volutes at the angles. The W and E faces left uncarved, and the S face with a confronted pair of passant lions. Both have their tails raised; the L lion lifts his head as if roaring, while the R turns his head back. Unfortunately since this bay has been blocked, the R half of the composition can only be seen from inside the Old Library.

Second order (W only): block capital with volutes as first order. The W face is carved with a standing hawk-like bird in profile facing L. Its wing is folded back, and behind it is a fluted lily, which follows the profile of the wing. The lost L half of the composition could well have mirrored this.

Pier 2:

The pier itself is of two stepped orders to the W and three to the E. On the E side the second order supports the diagonal groins of the two northernmost transept chapels, and the third forms the pilaster supporting the transverse arch between them (see IV.4.b. Vaulting).

First order N (shared): half-column with block capital with volutes, W part visible from central vessel, E part now in Old Library. Only the W and E ends of the decoration of the N face are visible and these suggest a symmetrical foliage design carved in relief against a flat background. There is a snaking fluted main stem, splitting at the bottom into fluted leaves terminating either in points or spirals, with a single leaf at the top. The W face has a symmetrical design with a central stem rising from the necking and dividing into four stems at the centre of the face. Two stems descend symmetrically on either side of the main stem, ending in pairs of fluted leaves; the other two rise and rejoin forming a roundel which encloses the inverted fluted lily with which they terminate. The stem has simple clasps at the nodes. The E face of this capital is left plain.

Second order N, W side: Nook shaft and block capital with angle volute. The N face carved with a ring clasp at the centre with three leaves descending and two rising to form a simple symmetrical pattern. The W face has a more complex version of this design with a central ring clasping four leafy stems.

First order S (shared): similar to first order N. The S face of the capital appears to be carved with a symmetrical foliage design, but little of the E part remains visible. Both W and E faces of the capital are left uncarved.

Second order S, W side: Nook shaft with volute capital as before. The S face has two symmetrical, parallel stems rising from the necking and terminating in confronted spirals. The W face has a central main stem rising from the necking, with three pairs of symmetrical fluted stems branching off it, and a damaged flower or bud at the top.

Pier 3:

Circular, carrying three broad volute capitals to N, S, and W. The N and S capitals carry the first orders of bays 2 and 3 respectively; the W capital carries the second orders of bays 2 and 3. There is no corresponding E capital, since there is a broad pilaster on this side that carries the transverse vaulting arch between chapels 2 and 3. The diagonal groins of chapels 2 and 3 are carried on volutes carved to suggest a capital running behind the pilaster. Each main capital face is carved with a pair of designs of clasped and fluted stems with fluted leaves and spiral terminals. These are too irregular to describe in detail, and never mirror one another. Between the main faces foliage motifs are carved which span adjoining capitals. These are normally small and symmetrical. The E volute of the N capital is carved with two symmetrical rows of zigzag.

S respond: The second-order supports to the W have been removed to accommodate a later stair turret. The second order E supports are for the diagonal groin of chapel 3 vault.

First order (shared): half column supporting block capital with volutes. The main (N) face carved with a symmetrical design of foliage with clasping and fluted leaves. The stair turret obscures the W face, and the E face has a simple tree-like design.

Nave

N arcade

Round headed, 12 bays, bay 12 blocked. Generally as S arcade but stylistically earlier. The vaulting shafts towards the nave are all half-columns on dosserets, a system only used for the first two piers of the S arcade, but like the S arcade the treatment of arch orders changes at bay 5. Capitals are generally as on the S arcade, but there are two oddities: Pier 8 E side third order: the impost is carved with single cable on the angle between face and chamfer; Pier 12 E side third order: scallop capital — triple to E, double to S.

S arcade

Round headed, 12 bays. Piers and bays are numbered stating from the crossing. Odd-numbered piers are circular, and even-numbered piers compound. Changes in the design of the vault responds at pier 3, and the treatment of arch orders at bay 5 have been described in the General Description. Capitals are all of cushion type with square neckings, and hollow chamfered imposts with a roll between face and chamfer. Bases have a hollow chamfer above a roll. The capitals are all similar but not identical. Those on the odd-numbered piers tend to lack a well-defined shield, and to have keels at the angles; those on the even piers tend to the conventional cushion type with well-defined shields and some are keeled and others not. This is a tendency rather than a strict system.

Wall passages/Gallery arcades

Triforium

Nave N gallery

As nave S gallery with the same change in arch mouldings at the same point.

Nave S gallery

The first three bays follow the design of the transept bays with double openings. Thereafter both orders 2 and 3 have hollows on the face of the arch as well as the angle roll. All capitals are cushions, but they are made to two different designs, like the nave arcade capitals. Bay 5 is unusual in having a simplified egg and dart moulding on the N, E and W faces of the impost of the central shaft capital.

N transept E gallery

As S transept E gallery except that the piers 1 and 3 are compound and pier 2 round. All capitals are cushions except the second and third order capitals on the S side of bay 1:

Bay 1, S side, second order capital.

On the necking at the angle is a small fluted trilobed leaf with scalloped edge. A grooved stem arises from this, splitting into a pair of stems, one curving around each face of the capital. These stems terminate in confronted lilies in the centre of each face. The L stem has two single leaves sprouting from it.

Bay 1, S side, third order capital.

On the necking at the angle is a small fluted bilobed leaf. Growing out of this is a pair of grooved stems, which curve around the angle, joining at the top to form a medallion which encloses the inverted lily with which they terminate. Another stem branches out of the medallion on the L, terminating in a lily on the L face.

N transept W gallery

As N transept E gallery but all capitals are cushions.

NW transept, E gallery

Of two bays, as in the SW transept. The S bay is blocked and its S jamb and capitals have been lost and replaced with square blocks. The N bay survives only in its S jamb and capitals and the S part of the arch. Round-headed, the S bay at least with a single-order double opening and two enclosing orders, as in the SW transept (3.a.(vii)). All surviving imposts are hollow-chamfered with an angle roll between face and chamfer.

N bay:

All surviving parts follow the same pattern as the S bay. The first order S capital is double-scalloped on its main face with a roll between the scallops, the second order capital is a plain cushion, and the third order capital has a cushion shield but indications of three scallops on the bell.

S bay, first order:

Both side supports and the central shaft are lost. Of the capitals only the W face of the N jamb capital is visible. This is a cushion. The arches show slim angle rolls visible on the W face, and presumably had the same form as their counterparts in the SW transept.

S bay, second order:

A half-column nook shaft on the N jamb supports a plain cushion capital with impost as described. In the arch is point-to-point single-roll chevron on face and soffit with units of nailhead in the lozenges formed on the angle.

S bay, third order:

Half-column nook-shaft with cushion capital with angle tucks. Impost as described. In the arch, an angle roll and a row of fret on the face.

S transept, E gallery

Three round-headed bays, bays 1 and 2 have double openings and two enclosing arches, giving three orders; bay 3 has three simple orders. The piers maintain the alternating system of the arcade below. On the round piers (1 and3) the inner order is carried on half shafts attached to N and S of the main pier, the second order on the main pier itself, and the third on a half shaft attached to the W face of the pier. On the compound piers the orders are carried on half shafts attached to the steps of the pier.

Bay 1 (N):

Three orders, the inner order is a double round-headed opening with broad soffit rolls and narrow face rolls. The central shaft is circular and coursed. Towards the main vessel the second order has an angle roll, and the third an angle roll and face hollow. Inside the gallery there are three orders, all plain and square, the outer on imposts only. Capitals are all cushions with square neckings and hollow chamfered imposts except as detailed below:

Pier 1, first order: the half of the capital towards the central vessel is deeply carved with a foliage design of a fluted stem curling around the angle of the capital and dividing into five fluted leaves with spiral tips. Halfway along this stem is another pair of fluted leaves. The remainder of the capital is a simple cushion.

Pier 1, second order: a triple fluted leaf with scalloped edge on the lower angle, and rising symmetrically from it to L and R on each face are curving fluted stems, each terminating in a lily with a long central shoot. These meet at the angle in a pair of volutes.

Pier 1, third order: the head and part of the body and wing of a reguardant dragon. The remainder of the beast is obscured by the later Octagon pier.

Central shaft capital: triple scallop.

Bay 2 (Central):

As bay 1 but all capitals are plain cushions.

Bay 3 (S):

The first order arch has an angle roll and face hollow to the W and is plain to the E. Orders 2 and 3 are as bay 1, all capitals are plain cushions.

S transept, W gallery

As S transept E gallery. All capitals are plain cushions, except the central shaft capital of bay 2, which is a double scallop.

SW transept E gallery

Of two unequal bays, the N narrower leading to stilting of the first order arches. The bay N terminates the S nave gallery and the S forms the gallery storey of the E chapel. Despite their different widths and functions the two bays are similarly treated. The N bay is heavily restored and partly rebuilt; the S is largely original. Round headed with double openings. There are three orders, the first carried by a central shaft and half columns, the second and third carrying enclosing arches on half-column nook shafts. The capitals are described below, but all imposts are hollow chamfered with an angle roll between face and chamfer, and neckings are square chamfered.

N bay, first order:The N capital is multiscalloped with wedges between the scallops and defined shields. The central shaft capital is a modern copy of its fellow in the S bay (qv). The S capital is a cushion with fluting on the bell. At its NW angle is a fernlike leaf. Arches are stilted with a soffit roll and angle roll outside it.

N bay, second order: cushion capitals, which look modern. In the arch a keeled angle roll with face and soffit hollows. Third order. The N jamb is rebuilt. The S has a cushion capital. The arch has an angle roll with face and soffit hollows. S bay, generally as N. The first order N cushion capital has a palmette at the SW angle. The C capital is a multi-waterleaf design with rows of beading along the leaf spines and single pellets inn the notches. Otherwise all capitals are simple cushions with keeled angles.

SW transept, S gallery

Of two bays, round headed with single openings, two orders. First order on half columns with a soffit roll in the arch; second on half-column nook shafts with an angle roll in the arch. Capitals are cushions with fluted bells, shields outlined by a groove and roll neckings. Imposts are hollow chamfered with an angle roll.

SW transept, S triforium

Immediately above the gallery on the S wall only is an unlighted triforium passage of two double bays separated by the central vault respond. Each opening is double arched, round headed and of two orders with a central shaft on the inner order and an enclosing arch on the outer.

First order: half shafts with a central cylindrical shaft. Capitals are scallops of various kinds - double or triple, with or without wedges between the scallops. Neckings are plain and chamfered, imposts have a roll below the face. In the arch, a row of centrifugal lateral face chevron with a row of lozenges on the angle.

Second order: half shafts with capitals and imposts as first order. In the arch, an angle roll and face hollow.

SW transept, W gallery

Of two bays, round headed with single openings, two orders. First order on half shafts with double or triple scallop capitals, roll neckings and roll imposts. The arch has a keeled angle roll and face hollow. Second order on half-column nook shafts. Capitals are cushions, double scallops, or cushions with scalloped bells. The arch and an angle roll with face and soffit hollows.

W tower, lower passage, all faces

Each of the three bays on each face has a triple opening with arches of equal size. Supports are paired: coursed half shaft responds intermediate en-delit shafts. Capitals are cushions with angle fillets, imposts are hollow chamfered, and in the arch a chamfered trefoil with cusp rolls. Each arch has a chamfered label.

W tower, upper passage, all faces

Each of the three bays on each face has a two-order triple opening with arches of equal size. The first order is on coursed nook shafts with cushion capitals with angle fillets and hollow chamfered imposts. The arch is plain and round. The second order is carried on half shafts. Capitals are of a variety of types — plain cushions, cushions with angle tucks, trefoil scallops with triple-tucked angles, and volutes. Imposts are hollow chamfered, and the trefoil arch is chamfered and fitted with cusp rolls.

Clerestorey

Nave

N clerestorey arcade. The design is the same as the S transept. All capitals are plain cushions with neckings and imposts as in the S transept, except where detailed below.

4A: zigzag decoration on the impost chamfer.

7B: fluted decoration on the capital shields and bell.

10B: cable necking.

11C: capital bell decorated with fluting.

Nave S clerestorey arcade

The design is the same as the S transept. All capitals are plain cushions with neckings and imposts as in the S transept, except where detailed below. In the following descriptions capitals are lettered from A to D, left to right in each bay:

Bay 4, capital B: capital has a trefoil shield indicated by an inscribed groove.

7A: double scallop capital.

8A: multi-scallop capital with zigzag on the impost chamfer.

8C: cushion capital with a triple keel on the angles.

9C: double scallop capital.

10C: triple scallop capital.

11B: shields decorated with fluting.

11D: shields decorated with fluting.

In addition to these variations, angle tucks appear on capitals 4B, 9D, 10D and 12B.

N transept clerestorey arcade

The design is the same as the S transept on the E and W sides (the N clerestorey is later). All capitals are plain cushions with neckings and imposts as in the S transept.

S transept clerestorey arcade

The design is uniform on all three sides. At this level the alternating pier system has been abandoned in favour of a regular system of rectangular piers with attached half shafts. Each bay has a triple-arched opening with two intermediate circular shafts, the central arch being wider and higher than the side arches. The arches have angle rolls and face hollows. All capitals are plain cushions with square neckings. Imposts are hollow chamfered with a face groove.

SW transept, E clerestorey arcade

Of two unequal bays, each of one order with a triple opening and pointed arches, the side arches lower and narrower than the central one (much narrower in the case of the N opening of the N bay). The outer supports are triple shaft responds, the inner ones quatrefoil section clustered shafts. Capitals are trefoil scallops with depressed shields, neckings plain and square, imposts hollow chamfered with angle rolls. Arches have a keeled angle roll, face hollow and hollow chamfered label.

SW transept, S clerestorey arcade

Of two bays, each of one order with pointed arch and single opening. The outer supports are triple shaft responds. Capitals, imposts and arches as E arcade (iv).

SW transept, W clerestorey arcade

As E arcade (iv).

W tower, all faces

Three bays per face, single openings, two orders, pointed. The first order has paired half-shafts supporting cushion capitals with angle fillets. Imposts are hollow chamfered. The arch has a soffit hollow and angle rolls. In the second order, en-delit nook shafts with two chamfered shaft rings support capitals and imposts like those of the first order. The arch has an angle roll and soffit hollow. Surrounding each arch is a chamfered label.

Vaulting/Roof Supports

Transept

N transept, E chapels (numbered from S to N)

Each chapel has a quadripartite groin vault carried on capitals which have their own nookshafts, except for the NW capital of chapel 1 and the SW capital of chapel 2, both of which spring from the circular arcade pier (pier 2). All capitals also have the same form: plain block capitals with keeled angle leaves terminating in volutes at the top, with the exception of the NE capital of chapel 2 and both E capitals of chapel 3, all of which are simple cushions with semicircular shields

N transept, N platform vault

The vault alternates between quadripartite groins (in the narrow bays) and transverse barrels (in the wide ones). To the S the vaults are simply carried on the arcade capitals, but two vault supports survive on the N wall, and should be compared with the arrangement in the S transept. As noted above, the entire W part of the arcade and vault is renewed.

Bay 1 (E), NE capital:

The capital is of the plain volute type supported on a nook shaft. It supports a plain, transverse entablature rather than an arch, and although it is at the same level as the cushion capital of the arcade, the different capital types and impost profiles indicate that it belonged to an earlier design for the platform.

C buttress capitals:

As in the S transept, the buttress consists of a broad flat two-step pilaster with a central half-column flanked by nook shafts. Unlike the S transept, however, the arrangement of capitals belongs to the second phase of design. All capitals are plain cushions with keels, square neckings and hollow chamfered imposts, and they are set at the same level as the arcade capitals (rather than above them, as in the S). What they support is a short length of broad half-column that terminates at the vault and does not continue in the same form on the wall at a higher level.

N transept, W aisle (three bays)

A brief description is given in section 2.b. (iv) above. The aisle vault is divided into three quadripartite groin-vaulted bays by plain, square-section transverse ribs. To the E, the transverse ribs are carried on half columns and capitals on dosserets against the arcade piers, while the diagonal groins have their own capitals, either sharing the arcade pier (pier 2) or on nook shafts (piers 1 and 3). On the W aisle wall the transverse ribs are again carried on half columns and single capitals on dosserets, onto which the diagonal groins also fall. All capitals are cushions, sometimes keeled. Imposts are hollow chamfered with a roll at the junction of face and chamfer. Neckings are squared off rather than rolls. There has been a good deal of restoration at the N end of the aisle following the collapse of 1699.

S transept E aisle

The three chapels were originally separated by walls, each having a quadripartite groin vault. This is now only the case for the S chapel. The wall between the two chapels to the N has been removed, and replaced by a pair of pilasters carrying a transverse arch on imposts which copy the form of the original work. The first and second chapels are now the Old Library.

Chapel 1 NE corner.

Nook shaft supporting block capital with angle volute. Each face is carved with a design of curving stems similar to those found on the E arcade capitals. The capital has a roll necking and a chamfered impost with rolls at the upper and lower edges of the chamfer.

Chapel 1 (N), NW corner.

Only the uncarved S face and volute of a block capital supported on the circular N pier of the E transept arcade are visible. This is the support for the diagonal groin.

Chapel 1, SE corner.

The groin is carried on a plain volute capital carried on a nook shaft. The faces of the capital are carved with similar foliage forms with three pairs of stems branching out symmetrically from a central trunk. The volute is carved with symmetrical curves in low relief, terminating in spirals at the bottom.

Chapel 1, SW corner.

The groin is carried on a plain volute capital carried on a nook shaft. The leaves at the angles are broad and flat, and the face decoration is simply a narrow vertical loop. Impost and necking as above.

Chapel 2, NE corner.

The groin is carried on a plain volute capital carried on a nook shaft. The lower part of the volute is decorated with a lozenge. Impost and necking as above.

Chapel 2, NW corner.

The groin is carried on a volute capital carried on a nook shaft. The capital's E face has a simple design of three symmetrical pairs of stems issuing from a ring clasp at the top of a short trunk. The S face has four vertical reedlike stems terminating in spirals. Impost and necking as before.

Chapel 2, SE corner.

The groin is carried on a volute capital carried on a nook shaft. The N face only of the capital is carved with a simple vertical stem with two pairs of symmetrical branches. Impost and necking as above.

Chapel 2, SW corner.

The groin capital shares the circular pier of the transept E arcade. It has an angle volute, the E face is not carved, and the N face shares a simple foliage design with the adjoining face of the arcade pier.

Chapel 3 (S chapel), NE corner.

The groin is carried on a volute capital carried on a nook shaft. Each face of the capital is carved with vertical reeding splaying apart at the top to reveal a stylised bud.

Chapel 3 (S chapel), NW corner.

The groin capital shares the circular pier of the transept E arcade. It has an angle volute against the transverse arch pilaster, so there is no E face, and the S face shares a simple foliage design with the adjoining face of the arcade pier.

Chapel 3 (S chapel), SE corner.

The groin is carried on a volute capital carried on a nook shaft in the angle of the chapel wall. The capital faces are uncarved, and the lower part of the volute is decorated with a kite motif.

Chapel 3 (S chapel), SW corner.

The groin is carried on a plain volute capital carried on a nook shaft in the angle between the arcade S respond and the chapel S wall.

S transept S platform vault

This six-bay groin vault has transverse ribs carried on the S arcade capitals to the N, and dying into the aisle wall on the S. The only sculpture is on the capitals of the central buttress shafts. This buttress consists of a broad flat two-step pilaster with a central half-column flanked by nook shafts, and it must belong to an earlier design for this S platform, since the central transverse rib abuts the impost of the central capital. The capitals are of the block type with volutes at the angles, roll neckings, and chamfered imposts with rolls at the upper and lower edges of the chamfer.

C half-shaft capital:

Side faces are plain, and the volutes have no extra decoration. On the main face is a pair of confronted, fighting bears on their hind legs.

E nook shaft capital:

The two faces are carved in low relief with a pair of confronted passant lions, one to each face and mirroring on another. Both have curly manes and open mouths. That on the E face has its tail raised over its back, that on the N has its tail down between its legs. The volute leaf is decorated with a lily with a clasp ring rising from the necking, the central element becoming the central flower of a second lily with clasp ring above.

W nook shaft capital:

Plain, keeled volute. The N face has a passant lion facing the volute, as E nook shaft capital. The W face is decorated with a rambling composition of fluted foliage with hooked terminals.

S transept W aisle (vestry) vault

Three-bay groin vault with transverse ribs, the E capitals not seen yet, the W capitals very simple in design.

Bay 1 (N), NW corner:

Nook shaft carrying the simplest form of block capital with a keel at the angle, roll necking, and chamfered impost with rolls at the upper and lower edges of the chamfer.

Bay 3 (S), SW corner:

Simple volute capital with necking and impost as before, but a large loss at the angle of the impost.

Between bays 1 and 2, W wall:

Double attached half shafts carrying a double block capital with rounded arris. Neckings and shared impost as Bay 1, NW corner.

Between bays 2 and 3, W wall:

As bays 1/2, but capitals are plain volutes with keeled angle leaves.

Nave

Nave, N aisle (12 bays)

As S aisle, except that all capitals are cushions. The change in transverse rib profile occurs at the same point.

Nave, S aisle (12 bays)

The vault is divided at the arcade piers into 12 quadripartite groined bays with transverse ribs. These ribs are plain and square at the E end, but from pier 6 each face of the rib has an angle roll and face hollow. The aisle wall supports are stepped responds with three coursed half-columns, the wide central one for the transverse rib and the narrower flanking ones for the diagonal groins. All capitals are cushions with hollow chamfered imposts decorated with an angle roll between face and chamfer, except for the transverse rib capital of respond 1 at the far E end of the aisle. This is a volute capital carved in low relief with the front part of a flying, fire-breathing dragon on its N face. It has a chamfered impost with angle rolls at the top and bottom of the chamfer. On the arcade side the transverse ribs and diagonal groins have their own shafting on the compound (even-numbered) piers. The round (odd-numbered) piers have a half-shaft on a respond for the tranverse ribs, while the diagonal groin capitals spring uncomfortably from the neckings of the main pier drums. All capitals are cushions.

Interior Decoration

Blind arcades

Nave N aisle, N wall bays 1–12

As S aisle bays 1-8, except for bay 7, where the arcade has been removed to accommodate the tomb of Bishop John Russell Woodford (1873-85), and bay12, which has been rebuilt with only the E unit of arcading remaining.

Nave S aisle, S wall, bay 12

Above the arcade described at (iv) above is a second one of 7 units with intersecting round-headed arches. Details and arch profiles as bays 1–8.

Nave S aisle, S wall, bays 1–8

The scheme for these bays is for an arcade of four units per bay. The arcades are carried on en-delit shafts with attic bases, cushion capitals with chamfered neckings and hollow chamfered imposts with a roll at the bottom of the face. The arches are round-headed with angle rolls and face hollows. The blind arcade does not appear in bays 1 or 8, which contain doorways.

Nave S aisle, S wall, bays 9–12

Bays 9–11 have windows with lower sills, and the arcade is thus lower but similar arch proportions are maintained by increasing the number of arches to five per bay. Details are otherwise similar to bays 2–7. This arcade continues in bay 12, which has no window.

NW transept, E wall, second (gallery) storey, lower level.

Two blind arches, to S of N gallery arch and to N of S arch. Design is identical to the SW transept (ix).

NW transept, E wall, second (gallery) storey, upper level.

Above each of the arches described at (xxii) above is a pair of blind arches to the same design as the single arches in corresponding positions in the SW transept (x). Capitals, however, are of double scallop or cushion design.

NW transept, W wall, fifth storey

At the N end of the wall a single bay of blind arcading survives. It is round headed with coursed nook shafts, a cushion and a triple scallop capital, roll imposts and an angle roll and face hollow in the arch. In the corresponding position on the S the blind arcading is trefoil headed with crocket capitals and en-delit shafting.

NW transept, W wall, gallery storey

A short section (two bays) of intersecting arches and their capitals N of a trace of the outer arch of the S gallery opening. Arches have angle rolls and face hollows, the surviving capitals are double scalloped, and the imposts appear to have a roll below the face, although they are badly damaged. In the corresponding position on the S the blind arcading is not intersecting, although intersecting arcading of this design appears in the SW transept at the S end of the gallery storey.

S transept, S wall

Above the arcade supporting the S platform linking the E and W galleries is a blind arcade of intersecting round arches on circular shafts made of en-delit sections supporting attached cushion capitals with square neckings and hollow chamfered imposts with face grooves. The arches have angle rolls and face hollows. The arcade is 16 bays long, but has been abbreviated at the E owing to the insertion of a stair turret.

S transept, W wall

The screen blocking the W aisle and converting it into a vestry is decorated with blind arcading of the same design as that on the S wall.

SW transept, E chapel, first storey

Round-headed design as (iii). There are three units in each straight bay and 12 in the apsidal bay. Of these, only the three S arches are original and these have plain cushion capitals.

SW transept, E chapel, second storey

Intersecting design as (i). There are five units in each straight bay and four between each pair of windows in the apsidal bay. Of these, only the four S arches are original and these have plain cushion capitals.

SW transept, E wall, second (gallery) storey, lower level.

To S of N gallery opening and to N of S opening are single round-headed blind arches, the N narrower than the S. Nook shafts are coursed, capitals double scallops, imposts have rolls below the face and arches have angle rolls and face hollows.

SW transept, E wall, second (gallery) storey, upper level.

Immediately above the two blind arches described at (ix) are two more, not so tall but of similar design except that capitals have volutes with crockets and the angle roll in the arch is keeled.

SW transept, SE angle, clerestorey level

Linking the S and E clerestoreys, with shared imposts, are four bays of pointed arched blind arcading, two on either wall. Shafts are en-delit and support capitals with two rows of crockets (except for the furthest W, which has a single row). Imposts are hollow chamfered with an angle roll, and the arch has a keeled angle roll with face hollow and hollow chamfered label.

SW transept, S wall, fifth storey

Seven units per bay with en-delit shafts, crocket capitals with hollow chamfered imposts with an angle roll and a roll at the lower edge of the chamfer. Arches are trefoil-headed with rolls on the cusps and angle roll profiles.

SW transept, S wall, first storey.

As (iii).

SW transept, S wall, second storey

As (i). Capitals are cushions or double scallops in E bay; cushions with fluted bells in W.

SW transept, SW angle, clerestorey level

As (xi), i.e. four bays of pointed arcading linking the S and W clerestoreys. Again, capitals have two rows of crockets (except for the furthest E, which has a single row).

SW transept, W wall, fifth storey

As (xiv), 12 units in S bay, 8 in N.

SW transept, W wall, first storey

As (iii).

SW transept, W wall, fourth (gallery) storey, N of S gallery opening, N and S of N gallery opening.

Three single blind arches, round headed and carried on coursed nook shafts, the northernmost incomplete and lacking a N capital. Capitals are (from S to N): double scallop; cushion with tucked angle wedges and a row of beading around the lower edge of the shield; cushion with triple angle wedge and a groove around the lower edge of the shield; double scallop with recesses on shields; double scallop. The imposts have a roll below the face, and in the arch is an angle roll and face hollow.

SW transept, W wall, fourth (gallery) storey, S of S gallery opening

Four units of intersecting, round headed arcading on en-delit shafts. Capitals are double scallops, with or without wedges, except for a single cushion capital with fluted bell. Imposts have a roll below the face, arches have angle rolls and face hollows.

SW transept, W wall, second storey

As (i). Capitals are plain cushions except for one double scallop with wedges and a double groove on the lower part of the shield in the N bay.

SW transept, W wall, third storey

Blind arcade with round-headed arches of two orders. First order on coursed nook shafts with cushion capitals, plain square neckings, hollow chamfered imposts with an angle roll and arches with angle roll and face hollow. Second order to the same design but carried on coursed half shafts.

String courses

Billet

A row of cylindrical billet. S transept, between arcade and gallery storeys. N transept, between arcade and gallery storeys. Nave, N and S, between arcade and gallery storeys. SW transept, E wall, foot of gallery storey. SW transept, W wall, top of third storey. NW transept, E wall, foot of gallery storey.

Billet and lozenge

A double chamfered string course with a row of incised lozenges on the face and a single row of billet on each chamfer. SW transept, S wall, top of second storey. SW transept, W wall, top of second storey.

Double roll

Two quadrant rolls separated by a groove. S transept, between gallery and clerestorey levels. N transept, between gallery and clerestorey levels. Nave, N and S, between gallery and clerestorey levels. SW transept, E wall, between gallery and clerestorey levels. SW transept, E chapel, top of third (gallery) storey. SW transept, S wall, top of fourth (triforium) storey. SW transept, W wall, top of fourth storey. SW transept, W wall, top of fifth storey. NW transept, W wall, foot of fifth storey. W tower, all faces, between lower and upper passages. W tower, all faces, between upper passage and clerestorey. W tower, all faces, top of clerestorey.

Lateral chevron

A single roll profile lateral chevron. S transept, W wall screen. Nave S aisle S wall, bays 1–12. Above the blind arcade (or above the doorways in bays 1 and 8). The string course is missing from bays 2, 3 and 4. From bay 9 the chevron units become longer. Nave N aisle N wall. Above the blind arcade in bay 1 only. The rest has been removed although traces remain in bay 6. It seems likely that the removal was connected with the replacement of the aisle windows on this side, although the new sills are above the level of the string course. SW transept, E chapel, top of first storey. SW transept, S wall, top of first storey. SW transept, W wall, top of first storey.

Oblique nailhead

A row of lozenge-shaped pyramids forming a string course. W tower, all faces, between tower arch and lower passage.

Sawtooth

A double chamfered string course with single rows of sawtooth on the face and lower chamfer. Nave S aisle S wall, bay 12, above the upper blind arcade. SW transept, E chapel, top of second storey.

Miscellaneous

N transept, NE stair turret doorway

See Exterior Features, Doorways (III.1.(i))

W tower, all faces, blind mandorlas

Flanking the apex of each tower arch is a pair of blind mandorlas with keeled angle rolls and chamfered labels.

Furnishings

Tombs/Graveslabs

Tomb

Tomb of Bishop Nigel (1133–69), N choir aisle. Nigel was buried at the E end of the nave, next to the altar of the Holy Cross. This tomb slab, assumed to be his, was discovered upturned in the floor of St Mary's, Ely, in 1829 (see Zarnecki 1958; Ladds 1937; Esdaile 1973). It is of black Tournai marble and tapers markedly towards the foot. Its edges are hollow chamfered. The slab depicts a standing figure of St Michael, facing forward with his wings behind and a beaded halo. In a fold of his clothing he supports a small frontal naked figure with hands raised. This is the bishop's soul. Michael stands under an arch with flat, square jambs, fictive volute capitals and a chamfered round head. On the arch chamfer is carved the inscription, SCS MICHAEL ORE PRO ME.

Above the arch is an architectural canopy. A pair of three-storey turrets stand above the capitals, their lowest storeys inscribed with fictive masonry and the upper two with round-headed arcading. These turrets are capped by gables with fictive tiling. Above the apex of the arch is represented a house-shaped structure with a tiled roof and a row of arcading at the front. Between this and the turret to either side is a smaller, sloping building, again with a fictive tiled roof, and articulated on its front face with a row of arches over narrow slots. The archangel's drapery is articulated with long pinch folds, and a good deal of skill is shown in the carving of decorative borders and the feathers of the wings.

The condition of the slab is generally good, with its carving still crisp in the resilient stone. There is considerable damage, however, some of it deliberate. The most significant is the loss of both faces. St Michael's has been chipped off, perhaps to allow the slab to lie flat when upside-down, whereas the bishop's has a loss at the top but is otherwise rubbed smooth. There are more general losses at the foot of the slab, especially on the left side. The lower edge is lost.

Dimensions
max. l. 1.73 m
w. at bottom 0.72 m
w. at top 0.90 m

Comments/Opinions

The earliest sculpture is found on the volute capitals of the entire lowest storey of the S transept and the E side of the N transept, the former carved with animals, birds and foliage in low relief. The fire-breathing dragon on the first capital of the S nave aisle also belongs to this campaign, which Zarnecki and Fernie have dated to the abbacy of Simeon (1081–93). Zarnecki's closest parallel for the animal and bird sculpture is the border of the Bayeux Tapestry, but comparisons with works at Jumieges point to a Norman origin for the workshop. The start of the second phase of work may have been delayed until the appointment of Abbot Richard in 1100, and certainly the change in capital forms from volutes to cushions produces a marked visual disjunction between the lower and upper storeys of the S transept in particular. The inference is that the Norman workshop had left, to be replaced by a large group of carvers accustomed to producing cushion capitals on a production line basis, but to slightly different designs. This would explain the variety in shield forms and angle treatment found in the upper parts of the transepts and throughout the nave, which follows no discernable pattern.

Work proceeded rapidly, so that at least some of the carvers of nave capitals remained active while the W transept was being erected. It is certainly the case that the sculptural ornament here, both inside and out, is more stylistically advanced at higher levels, but the present author is inclined to the view that this process is less gradual than has sometimes been suggested. On the interior of the SW transept, for example, there is a distinct stylistic rupture at the fifth storey of the S and W elevations, where trefoil-headed arches with cusp rolls and Gothic crocket capitals first make their appearance. Only in the sixth storey do we find pointed arches and keeled mouldings. These stylistic observations agree with the study of Fearn, Marshall and Simpson into the building sequence, in which it is concluded that work was interrupted in about 1140 at this level and not taken up again until Bishop Geoffrey Ridel (1174–89) provided the funds.

On the design sources (or the lack of them) for the Ely W transept in Britain, the Holy Roman Empire and the Mosan area, see McAleer (1963), 120–87 and Ferguson (1986), 225–73. The motif of the trefoil headed arch with rolls on the cusps is peculiarly ubiquitous at Ely. It appears on the Monks' doorway, where the present rolls are modern additions. That these were not originally present is suggested by Bentham's 1770 drawing, which shows none, although Zarnecki (1989) has argued that the presence of rolls in a doorway at East Dereham (Norfolk) is evidence for their original inclusion in the Monks' doorway as well. The little doorway to the N transept turret, has the rolls, but is not trefoil-headed, although it would be if its tympanum were removed. As it is an insertion of unknown date, speculations about its significance are of limited value, but a doorway at Twywell (Northants) has the same form, differing only in the pattern of diapering on the tympanum. Twywell is close to the Barnack quarries where the stone for the cathedral was mined, and also nearby is St Kyneburgha's church at Castor (Huntingdon). A chancel window here has a trefoil head but no rolls, and the church is dated by an inscription to 1124. Whatever the precise genesis of the trefoil headed arch with cusp rolls, it was taken up with enthusiasm in the blind arcading of the W transept and tower of Ely Cathedral.

Turning to the great doorways, their dependence on Italy has long been recognised (Kingsley Porter 1917, 235). The design of the jambs and arches of the Monks' and Prior's doorways, with alternating round and square orders covered with foliage scrolls and motifs in roundels can be paralleled in Corrente Comasco work at Pavia (S Michele, S Pietro in Ciel d'Oro), and the lion supports on the Prior's doorway, commonly found in Lombardy and Emilia, provide more compelling evidence. A further international link is provided by the composition of the tympanum of the Prior's doorway. This kind of Christ in Majesty flanked by angels is Burgundian in origin, the closest parallels for the angles' twisted posture occurring in such Brionnais churches as Anzy-le-Duc (Saone-et-Loire), which also provides a model for the corbel heads supporting the tympanum. That said, there is no doubt that the carving of figures and foliage is English in style. Since the doorways have been redated to the 1120s, Zarnecki's comparisons with Ely manuscripts of the 1130s and '40s can no longer be taken as indications of sources, but his parallels with Anglo-Saxon drawing styles, as in the Christ in Majesty in the British Library Psalter Cotton Tiberius C.VI, f.18v. or the figures of monks in Arundel 155, f.9v. remain relevant.

Iconographically the main feature of discussion is the meaning of the sequence of figures in roundels on the outer pilasters of the Prior's doorway. For Zarnecki (1958) the sculptor was not interested in symbolism, but copied such scenes as attracted him, mainly from manuscript cycles of the Zodiac and Labours of the Months, and in this he is surely correct, although whether a sculptor would have had access to painted manuscripts must be questioned. It is worth noting from this perspective the portal of Sagra di San Michele near Turin, dateable circa 1120, where the sculptor Nicholaus also carved zodiac scenes on doorjambs. In his 1989 revisitation of the doorways, Zarnecki accepted Meredith's comparison between the corbel heads on the Prior's doorway and heads on the Bari Throne. The visual comparison is certainly compelling, but it is hard to know what to make of it. More immediately he also suggested a possible workshop connection with a tympanum at Wordwell (Suffolk) where Byzantine blossoms similar to those on all three of the Ely doorways appear. The older view of the chronology of the doorways was given by Zarnecki (1958), who dated the chip-carved arch in the S transept to c.1090, and the other three doorways to c.1135. Meredith, on the other hand, has argued for a progression in style on the basis of Italian comparisons, notably with the sculpture of Niccolo at Sagra di San Michele and elsewhere. In this view the Prior's doorway is the earliest, dating from c.1125, with the Vestry and Monks' doorways dating from ten years later. To account for the surprising fact that the earliest doorway is the furthest W, she ingeniously suggested that the Prior's doorway was originally sited where the Vestry doorway is now, providing a temporary grand W entrance; the chip-carved arch that remains there being the original label of the Prior's doorway rather than the remnant of a much earlier doorway. Unfortunately the theory depends on the measurements matching. The outer diameter of the Prior's doorway, at 2.49m, is 0.29m wider than the estimated inner diameter of the chip-carved arch, so the hypothesis seems untenable. In general, however, a date in the 1120s rather than the `30s for the three great doorways fits much more comfortably into the known chronology of the building, an observation of Franklin's that Zarnecki had accepted by 1989.

Prior to the present survey, details of the nave and transept corbels have not been widely available. It is now clear that much of this work is of very high quality, and that workshops with distinctive styles were involved. This is not the place for a detailed analysis, but the S nave clerestorey corbel table includes a toothache head (bay 1, corbel 3), and humans and beasts of great charm and vitality (bay 10, corbel 4; bay 3, corbel 3) that rank among the best of this date in the country. Emphasis is often given to the mouth, deeply carved to cast a black shadow, and taking a wide variety of forms from the lolling-tongued dog (bay 2, corbel 4), to the mask of tragedy (bay 11, corbel 5). Further west, in the E clerestorey of the SW transept, we find a workshop carving caricature heads of great expressiveness, marked by pointed noses, long upper lips, and distinct nasolabial folds (S bay, corbel 1).

Within Cambridgeshire the Prior's doorway was copied in a simplified form at Kirtling. The N doorway of Wentworth church also shows a marked dependence on the cathedral, in the form of roll corbels and cushion capitals with fluted shields. The chancel windows at Coton follow the typical Ely pattern with nook shafts supporting cushion or scallop capitals and arches with angle rolls and face hollows. At Grantchester two reset corbels belong to the same world as those on the cathedral nave. The extensive use of billet in Ely string courses left its mark at St John's in Duxford, Swaffham Prior, Willingham, and St Mary Magdalene's in Cambridge. Sawtooth string courses (or remains of them) are found at Great Shelford, Haslingfield, Stretham and again St Mary Magdalene's in Cambridge. The only example I have noted of the lateral chevron string course found on the cathedral's nave aisle walls is inside the church of the Holy Sepulchre in Cambridge, but the execution is not identical and it might not even be 12thc. work.

Bibliography

  • T. D. Atkinson, An Architectural History of the Benedictine Monastery of Saint Etheldreda at Ely. Cambridge 1933.

  • J. Bentham, The History and Antiquities of the Conventual and Cathedral Church of Ely. Cambridge 1771 (repr. Norwich 1912).

  • B. Cherry, "Romanesque Architecture in Eastern England", Journal of the British Archaeological Association, CXXXI (1978), 1-29.

  • W. E. Dickson, Ely Cathedral. London 1897. B. E. Dorman, The Story of Ely and its Cathedral, Ely 1977.

  • P. Draper, "Bishop Northwold and the Cult of Saint Etheldreda", Medieval Art and Architecture at Ely Cathedral, B.A.A. Conference Transactions, II, 1976. Leeds 1979, 8-28.

  • Liber Eliensis. E. O. Blake (ed), Liber Eliensis, Camden third series, xcii, London 1962.

  • S. Evans, A Short History of Ely Cathedral. Cambridge 1930. S. Ferguson, The Romanesque Cathedral of Ely: An Archeological Evaluation of its Construction. Ann Arbor 1995 (PhD Columbia University 1986).

  • E. Fernie, "Observations on the Norman Plan of Ely Cathedral", Medieval Art and Architecture at Ely Cathedral, B.A.A. Conference Transactions, II, 1976. Leeds 1979, 1-8.

  • E. Fernie, "The Architecture and Sculpture of Ely Cathedral in the Norman Period" in P. Meadows and N. Ramsay, "A History of Ely Cathedral", Woodbridge 2003, 95-111.

  • J. A. Franklin, "The Romanesque Sculpture of Norwich Cathedral", MA Thesis, University of East Anglia 1980.

  • F. S. L. Johnson, A Catalogue of Romanesque Sculpture in Cambridgeshire and the Isle of Ely. M.Phil (London, Courtauld Institute), 1984, 18-156.

  • S. Keynes, "Ely Abbey 672-1109" in P. Meadows and N. Ramsay, "A History of Ely Cathedral", Woodbridge 2003, 3-58.

  • J. Maddison, "The Gothic Cathedral: new building in a historic context" in P. Meadows and N. Ramsay, "A History of Ely Cathedral", Woodbridge 2003, 113-42.

  • J. P. McAleer, The Romanesque Church Facade in Britain. University of London PhD thesis 1963, published New York and London 1984, 120-87.

  • J. Meredith, "The impact of Italy on the Romanesque Sculpture of England", Ann Arbor 1997 (PhD, Yale University 1980).

  • A. Kingsley Porter, Lombard Architecture, London 1917, I, 235.

  • D. J. Stewart, On the Architectural History of Ely Cathedral, London 1868.

  • The Victoria History of the County of Cambridgeshire and the Isle of Ely, II, 1948, 199-210; IV, 1953, 50-78.

  • G. Webb, Ely Cathedral. London 1950.

  • H. Wharton (ed), Anglia Sacra, sive collectio Historiarum partim recenter scriptarum, de Archiepiscopis et Episcopis Angliae, a prima Fidei Christianae susceptione ad Annum MDXL. 2 vols, London 1691.

  • J. W.Hewitt, A Brief History and Description of the Conventual and Cathedral Church of the Holy Trinity of Ely. Cambridge 1848.

  • G. Zarnecki, "Romanesque Sculpture in Normandy and England in the Eleventh Century", Proceedings of the Battle Conference 1978, Ipswich 1979, 168-89.

  • G. Zarnecki, "Some Observations concerning the Romanesque Doorways of Ely Cathedral", in C. Harper-Bill, C. J. Holdsworth and J. L. Nelson (ed), Studies in Medieval History presented to R. Allen Brown, Woodbridge 1989, reprinted in Further studies in Romanesque Sculpture, London 1992, 288-310.

  • G. Zarnecki, The Early Sculpture of Ely Cathedral. London 1958.

Location

Site Location
Ely
National Grid Reference
TL 542 801 
Boundaries
pre-1974 traditional (England and Wales): Cambridgeshire
now: Cambridgeshire
Diocese
medieval: Lincoln (Dorchester to 1085)
now: Ely
Dedication
now: Holy and Undivided Trinity and St Etheldreda
medieval: St Peter and St Etheldreda
Type of building/monument
Cathedral, formerly Benedictine monastery  
Report authors
Ron Baxter