Tadcaster is a market town sited about 10 miles SW of York. St Mary's is a large Perp. church made in the local limestone. Aisled nave and chancel, the N aisle modern, the S aisle and chancel of the 14thc. and the W tower of the 15thc.
Due to flooding from the river Wharfe, the church except for the tower was taken down in 1875 and rebuilt with a 5 foot plinth. (Borthwick Institute, Fac. 1875/7). An arch constructed from fragments and a random group of fragments were reset in a wall when the church was rebuilt in 1875-7. These fragments are the only sculpture remaining from the 12th century.
There was a pre-Conquest church, a cross-fragment being among the 12th-century pieces reset. Once the Percys had acquired the manor, and stone was being shipped here, rebuilding would have been likely. About 1189, the church was given to Sawley Abbey, a foundation of the Percys (Anker 1991, 16).
The HER schedule 1017407 says 'The castle became neglected from the 12th century when the Percy family ceased to have a dwelling in Tadcaster.' The area of the motte and bailey is marked as wooded on the OS map.
The church was burnt and sacked by the Scots in 1318 (Anker, 1991, 6). VCH Yorkshire III, 404, describes an incursion of the Scots from Berwick to Pontefract and back through Craven in that year, but does not mention Tadcaster.
Two capitals and fragments of 20 voussoirs are reset to form an arch framing the W window of the S aisle. Bases may or may not match the upper parts. Columns modern.
i) Arch and capitals framing W window of S aisle.
Bases have simple upright form with a type of collar wrapped round them.
Left capital: a block capital, with integral necking and no impost, carved on each face with five vertical “leaves”, which are beaded along the central vein. The upright face above has chip-carved zigzag and, above this, a line of fine beading between two thin convex mouldings. The block from which the capital is carved continues into the wall to the L.
R capital: a rounded block capital, with no impost, with volutes on the angle, and decorated with irregular, angular interlace with pellets or small bosses between. The integral necking has broken away. The block from which the capital is carved continues a short way into the wall to the R.
Type A: on the angle, lozenges, formed by one row of lateral centrifugal chevron on face and soffit. Faceted bosses lie within the lozenges. On the soffit a centripetally carved row of lateral chevron faces the centrifugal chevron point-to-point, forming lozenges between. The lozenges are decorated with round bosses, two half-bosses to each voussoir (some lost). On the face, an unmoulded row of centripetal chevron faces the lateral centrifugal chevron point-to-point, forming lozenges.
Type B: of curved section, with a row of lozenges formed by point -to-point chevron. Faceted bosses lie within the lozenges and a double groove flanks them. Below this a second double groove mirrors that flanking the lozenges, although the points of each do not touch.
|h. incl. Impost||0.20 m|
|h. incl. necking||0.20 m|
|L capital max. w. E face||0.36 m|
|R capital max. w. E face||0.29 m|
|w. of N face||0.24 m|
|w. of S face||0.24 m|
Fragments set as a window frame are described above as item (i). The following pieces continue in the wall to the right:
(ii) A fragment of string course with a pattern of two rows of semicircles placed back-to-back, perhaps seen to form crosses. Faceted in the area between the crosses. For this and the remaining fragments, which are irregular in shape, a single dimension has generally been provided as an indication of scale.
(iii) Irregular fragment with foliate ornament; a symmetrical sheathed leaf-form and a voluted half-palmette with cross-hatching.
(iv) Chip-carved decoration as (ii), cut into an unchamfered block; this is set within small convex mouldings and is itself slightly convex. With (ix), these are probably fragments of a string-course.
(v) A voussoir carved with a beakhead gripping a thick roll. The beakhead has two scalloped bands of hair below a fine zig-zag moulding at the top of the block. It has wide ringed eyes drilled at centre, and much fine drilling randomly decorating the beak. The beak is broken at the tip. It is smaller in scale than would normally be expected.
(viii) Voussoir with one row of chevron, flanked by plain, square, stepped mouldings two above, three below.
(ix) as (ii) and (iv). This fragment is chamfered above and below the decorative band; possible string-course.
(x) Roughly square fragment, decorated with two clasped double trumpets which form a narrow lozenge between them. The borders of the lozenge are decorated with fine zig-zag and a round boss sits within. Probably a voussoir from an elaborate arch.
(xi) Chevron voussoir similar to (i), type B.
|fragment (iii) length||0.23m|
|Fragment (ii) length||0.17m|
|fragment (iv) length||0.143m|
|fragment (ix) h.||0.135 m|
|fragment (viii) d.||0.155 m|
|fragment (viii) w.||0.235 m|
|fragment (vii) width||0.15m|
|fragment (vi) length||0.18m|
|fragment (v) width||0.115m|
|fragment (x) h.||0.23m|
|fragment (xi) h.||0.22m|
|fragment (xii) h.||0.2m|
M. Anker (ed.), Guided Tour and Short History of St. Mary's Church Tadcaster (pre-1991).
Borthwick Institute, Fac. 1875/7
J. Fowler and J. T. Micklethwaite, 'Note on the destruction of Tadcaster church', Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries, Second series, vol.6, pp. 442-5.
Royal Commission on Historical Monuments (England), An Inventory of the Historical Monuments in the City of York, vol. iii, South West of the Ouse (Oxford, 1972).
I. Roberts, Tadcaster Castle Motte, Tadcaster, North Yorkshire, West Yorkshire Archaeological Services, unpublished report no. 544 (1997).
Victoria County History of Yorkshire, vol. III (London, 1974).