St Nicholas, Newbald: North Newbald, Yorkshire, East Riding

Feature Sets (4)


North Newbald is a village in the East Riding of North Yorkshire, about 3.5 miles S of Market Weighton. The village is near the Roman road from Brough to Malton. The name means ‘new build’ and is an Anglian place-name recorded in the 10th century.

The church of St. Nicholas, which is partially hidden behind large trees, is a large, plain, cruciform building, but contains a significant amount of high-quality sculpture. It has an unaisled nave, central tower, N and S transepts, chancel with N vestry. The tower is Romanesque to the chamfered string course just above the roofs.

There were restorations in 1864, 1875 and 1891-2 (Pevsner and Neave 1995, 622). The church as it was in 1864 is shown in Bilson 1911, pl. 3. The elevation drawings in his article show the low roofs of late medieval date; the nave and transepts had their roofs returned to the original height in 1875 and 1892 respectively. The S doorway to the nave was restored in 1875; this work included the building of the rectangular surround to the mandorla and extensive renewal of the figure of Christ. 

The twelfth-century chancel, which had probably been apsed, was later replaced by a Perpendicular one. In the same period the transept chapels and their original apses were removed, the entrance arches were blocked up, and windows inserted. As far as the lost E end is concerned, John Bilson is content to compare the remains to the surviving example of an apsed church at Birkin, ‘an almost contemporary church’. Internally, there is a break in the masonry just W of the crossing, but no change of design except in the detail of the string course. With one’s back to the traceried W window, the 6-bay nave now appears largely as when it was built. The effect of the high plain ‘dado’ and the indirect lighting directs the eye eastwards.

There is sculpture on the four doorways; inside there are chevron arches at the crossing, string-courses, windows, and also a font.


According to the DB, ‘A church is there, and a priest’. At some time, it was two townships but one parish.

The place-name was the equivalent of simple ‘Newbald’ in DB, and the present distinction of two Newbalds, North and South, may have arisen with the division of the estate and the establishment of the prebends of North Newbald and South Newbald, perhaps in the later twelfth century. The 28 carucates at Newbald and other property later endowed the two prebends.


Exterior Features


Nave N doorway

A doorway of three orders. This doorway and those of the transepts preserve their thresholds, a slab across the bottom of the opening forming a step down to the floor level inside.

h. of capital incl. necking 0.28m
h. of opening approx. 2.7m
largest cross, ht. 0.12m
largest cross, w. 0.008m
w. of opening 0.96m
1st order

Plain plinth, large half round column in reveal.

Bilson describes a cross carved ‘on the face of the inner attached shaft to the east jamb of this doorway, on the stone immediately below the capital, an incised cross 3 ½ x 4 ¾ inches, the cross arm 1 7/8 inches down; below is another 3 ½ inches each way’; this is ‘of rougher execution… apparently an imitation’ (1911, 27, 29). He describes the crosses in detail, and they are still there. Compare S doorway, which has similar but less elaborate crosses on the 1st order half-columns on the E side, and more casual ones on the 4th order shaft.

Plain ring; L and R capitals plain and upright, with two scallops on the reveal, one on the face, the scallops and upright above are deep and plain. There are two wide volutes on the angles; both volutes have a shell- or leaf-like under-surface (as S nave doorway, R capital). It is not possible to open this doorway now, but it can be supposed that the similar volutes on the S angles of both capitals are continued on the S face, as on S Nave doorway, R capital.

Imposts throughout chamfered and plain with a quirk near the bottom of the upright.

In the arch, two soffit rolls and plain on the face.

2nd order

Plain plinths, shallow ring with concave and convex layers. Detached shaft much weathered. L and R capitals the same, with heavy angle volute with spirals (as used on S nave doorway) and less pronounced volutes with spirals at either side. In the arch, a row of centrifugal chevron on the angle with two steps outside it; in the soffit, a row of hollow chevron with two steps between it and the angle row of chevron.

3rd order

Bases and shafts as for second order. L and R capitals the same, having a plain single scallop with angle tuck. In the arch, on the face, a row of centrifugal chevron meeting another on the soffit point to point on the joint. In the centre of each voussoir, the angle shows.


Label, as for S nave doorway: an arch of plain voussoirs projects over the third order, acting as a label. The outer circumference is flush with the main walling.

h. of capital incl. necking  0.28m

largest cross w. 0.008m  ht.  0.12m

Nave S doorway and mandorla above

A round-headed doorway of four orders and label. It occupies the 5th bay and adjacent pilasters of the S wall of the nave. Immediately above the stonework of the doorway is a string course. Then, stepped back from it by about a foot (0.3m), is a rectangle of modern stonework containing most of a mandorla with a figure of Christ enthroned.

On the ashlar of the W jamb Bilson shows a mass-dial (Bilson 1911, fig. 21). There are various crosses of a possibly 12th-century type carved on the columns on the E side - larger, more important ones on the first and second order columns, a mass of crosses on the fourth. The largest, best placed, cross measured 0.097m high and 0.046m wide. Compare N nave doorway.

There has been some restoration recently (2016) which is not taken account of in the text: discrepancies may occur in the description of the imposts and bases.

Additional measurements of the mandorla and figure, by John Bilson, are given in Comments.

h. of capitals incl. necking 0.275m - 0.29m
h. of opening 3.16m
w. of double capital, order one, W face approx 0.49m
w. of opening 1.367m
1st order

Base, a square plain plinth. Twin rings much worn, perhaps like those restored to the outer orders. Above these, a pair of coursed half columns with an arris between, both columns on the R having an incised cross.

Rings plain throughout, where they survive. Double capital on L has finely cut, vigorous foliage trails resembling manuscript work. Crisply-cut, and so lively that a curl surges onto a scallop on the left half of the capital. The S angle has a mask on the corner which emits foliage; there is a bead at the top of its forehead, in the cusp of the scallops that meet on the angle. It has big eyes, but no teeth or lower jaw. In the N half of the E face, a small lion is in the foliage, it looks upwards. It has a curly mane: it recalls a lion at Stillingfleet, though that wears a collar. On the angle against the church door, another mask is emitting foliage onto the E and N faces of the capital. The mask is similar to that at the opposite end of the capital, with big eyes and thin drooping ears.The ornamentation of capitals on the inside face against the door is also seen on the three other doorways. Above the bells of the double capital, the main face has four scallops, two larger outer ones and two smaller ones between; the end faces have a large single scallop. All these are plain. The scallop on the N face is so well preserved, except for some efflorescence, that the setting-out lines and centres can be seen.

The R double capital is symmetrical, with large spiral volutes which are reeded in a leaflike manner on the angle, the volute on the NW angle continues onto the N face of the capital against the door. The cones are lightly reeded or divided. On the W face, the shields have plain borders enclosing an inverted fan of five leaves. Bilson pointed out the detail in shallow relief tucked in between the two central cones (Bilson 1911, 30). See Comments for his comparison of this detail to work at Bridlington priory. The capital is plain above.

Impost, the same throughout, is chamfered with a deep upright having a groove at the bottom.

First order, in the arch: in the soffit, four half-rolls with quirks between the outer pairs, but a hollow in the centre; on the face, plain. 

2nd order

Base: Plain and square plinth; double torus and detached shafts, all probably renewed.

L capital. Compare Bilson 1911, fig. 23. Plain ring. A flat leafy form springs from the angle and makes a central volute at its tip; to each side three spiralling forms grow from the central blade and hang down beside it; to the sides, the cone is plain. Above, the two scallops on each face are again unequal in size with smaller ones on the angle; plain above. Impost as before, but a large part has flaked off, or been broken off, recently (2005).

R capital. Plain ring. The sides of the capital have shallow cones with inverted scallops above on the S face; a heavy spiral volute on the angle; normal scallop on W face. Plain above. Impost as before.

Second order, in the arch: in the soffit, a row of hollow chevron with steps either side. On the face, a row of centrifugal chevron at the angle and three rows of steps outside it.

3rd order

Base and jambs : As second order.

L capital, the shallow cones or reeding in the background are without any shields above, but have free spirals. A broken volute had a pair of spirals like those remaining at the top and sides (Bilson 1911, fig. 23). The upper part of the capital is plain.

R capital. This has reeded sides as the L capital. The angle volute below the two scallops at the angle has been lost (Bilson 1911, fig. 23). There are four semicircles similar to shields, but these have been developed as scale pattern on the W face; on the S face there are two small spirals below the semicircles. Plain above up to the impost.

Third order in the arch: in the soffit, plain; angle roll; on the face a hollow. 

4th order

Base much as before, but perhaps looks more authentic. Detached shafts, with incised crosses on the R side.

Capitals, same both sides. Shallow cones almost parallel as before; with two scallops on each face. On the angle a plain volute bulges down from beneath the scallops. A similar capital is on the chancel arch at Lockington.

Fourth order, in the arch. A large angle roll, with plain fillets against the third order and the label. The roll has been renewed in part, but was cut with a very well-adjusted spiral design, formed by hollows gouged in the plain roll.  

Label: in the form of voussoirs, plain and flush with wall surface.

Mandorla with figure of Christ

Above the doorway, but set about a foot (0.3m) back from it, rises the mandorla with Christ enthroned, his left hand holding a book, his right hand raised in blessing. The rectangular projection in which the mandorla and its statue are set is entirely modern. It was erected when the porch was removed in 1875. Compare the situation under the porch in 1815, when the statue was already set back from the plane of the doorway but without much support or surround.

The mandorla is composed of three successive orders made of long stones as for a label, not narrow stones as for voussoirs. Its maximum radius is the same as the outer order of the doorway (that is, order 4, the spiral). The first or innermost order of the mandorla is carved with a flat threefold plait on the face; plain inside. Next is an order of centrifugal chevron on the face and normal to the soffit, and lastly a moulding with a roll on the angle and a hollow on the face; this acts as a label, being slightly prominent from the wall surface and able to shed water. 

N transept N doorway

A round-headed doorway of two orders. This is the plainest of the four here. The interior face of the doorway has slots for a closing bar.

h. of opening 2.34m
ht. of capital and ring 0.27m
w. of opening 0.92m
1st order

A large half column in the reveal rising straight from the threshold, plain on the face. Plain ring. L and R capitals the same: double scallop on the reveal, single on the face. The relief is low but clarified by the shield having been sunk a little relative to the cone (compare treatment of capitals of the crossing). The S face of these capitals, against the door, is carved with cone and scallop in the same manner. Impost as all other doorways, chamfered with a deep upright and a quirk near the angle. In the arch, a large half roll in the soffit, on the face a row of hollow centrifugal chevron with a step outside it.

2nd order

The bases on this order are water-holding, and later replacements (Bilson, 1911, 17). Detached shafts. Plain ring. L and R capitals the same, two scallops on each face, treated as first order. In the arch: on the face, a row of centrifugal chevron; in the soffit a row of chevron. This order finishes flush with the wall with no label.

S transept S doorway

Round-headed doorway of three orders and ornamented label. A crack has opened up along joint lines and the arch is distorted. Some stones are fracturing under the strain. On the visit in 2016, white and dark grey staining had developed.

1st order, R capital, ht. incl. necking 0.28m
1st order, R capital, max. w. W face 0.28m
h. of opening to threshold 2.56m
w. of opening 0.99m
1st order

Base very worn; plain and square plinth; ring in two zones, seemingly concave (above) and slightly convex (below). Coursed half column.

L ring plain; scallop capital of usual form, that is, the shields do not overhang and are not otherwise emphasised. Two scallops to E face, one to S. The interior or N face of the capital has one scallop and the cone is carved with a rather wandering foliage pattern in low relief. On the R, ring with spiral pattern, of which the main strand is hollow and the peak between successive hollows has a central groove or quirk. Much of this ring has broken off, but can be seen in Bilson 1911, fig. 26. The capital too has lost a major part of its decoration on the SW angle but the inner, N, face against the door is carved, and is virtually undamaged. It has rich fluted leaves which sometimes fold back on themselves; there is similar work at St Denys, York. The foliage is symmetrical about the angles. A fringe of upright flutes or leaves just above the ring is seen at churches often styled ‘Yorkshire School’. The scallops of this capital are plain but emphasized by a raised rim edged by a narrow moulding. Impost is the same throughout, plain and chamfered with a quirk at the angle.

First order in the arch: heavy roll in soffit; sunken chevron row on face. 

2nd order

Base renewed, plain plinth, ring of two rounded zones, similar to first order. Detached shaft, renewed.

L ring plain, capital has shallow cones, two on each face, as on the Nave S doorway but no angle volute; the scallops are emphasized by a fine ridge or narrow moulding round the curve.

R capital. Ring has a hollow spiral pattern, but is largely broken away the angle. On each face two cones with between them at the top a rectangular projection. Above this are incised two spiral volutes with a ‘v’ between them fitting into the projection, and above is that another incised line parallel to the top of the previous and continuing along both W and S faces.

In the arch, in the soffit a chevron roll with a step either side; on the face a row of centrifugal chevron.

3rd order

Base and colonettes, as second order.

L ring in two rounded horizontal zones, these are cabled in opposite directions. The bell of the capital has an intricate woven foliage net formed of a double strand, not noticeably symmetrical. The ends of the strands are few but very delicate, tiny doubled leaves, very soft and new-looking. Above are two plain scallops on each face, making a plain volute on the angle; these scallops project over the almost vertical sides of the capital.

R ring plain, capital has two cones and two plain scallops on each face.

In the arch: in the soffit, a chevron row; on the face, a row of centrifugal chevron, and outside that a step.


The jamb is plain and square, the impost has a chamfer, quirk and upright on the inner face, but is flush with the wall on the S face. As elsewhere here, the label finishes flush with the wall, but this arch is highly ornamented. In the soffit, a step; on the angle, a row of centrifugal chevron and two steps outside it on the face. The zigs are noticeably of varied widths, for example, just to the left of the apex there are two on one stone.


All windows: oculi in gables and other windows.

Windows of nave and transepts are quite large. There are oculi in the gable walls of the transepts. No identifiably 12th-century windows are seen in the square turret in the angle of nave and N transept. See also window-head reset in vestry.

Oculi in gable ends of transepts

The end wall of both transepts had an oculus in the gable. At one time the transept roof level was reduced to a point just above the oculi (see elevations in Bilson 1911, figs. 10, 11, and early views of the church). The transept roof levels were restored in 1892. The oculus in S transept S wall is a modern copy of the one on the N gable (Bilson, 1911, 22). Bilson suggests the oculi lit a floor level across the transepts.

The inner ring or order is plain, the outer is flush with the wall and given a row of centrifugal chevron with one step outside it. 

[For more illustrations of windows, see under String Courses].

Windows of nave and transepts

The 6-bay nave had 3 windows on the N wall, all E of the N doorway; there were 4 windows in the S wall, all to the E of the S doorway. There is no trace of a window in bay 6 of the S nave wall, though one is shown in the 1815 view of the church; this probably appeared through a fault in copying from an original sketch. A Perpendicular window, inserted in bay 2 of the S wall of the nave, has been restored to its original form.

Nave and transept windows are of two orders on the exterior face: first order plain with a narrow chamfer, second order plain and square. Internally, the windows are positioned along a string-course.

Exterior Decoration

String courses

String courses

A string course ends where the apse formerly projected and where the original chancel was taken down. This has a fairly deep plain upright, and is chamfered above and below. For further signs of the transept apses in the wall fabric, see Bilson 1911, 12, 16.

The gables of the transepts are separated from the rectangle of wall below by a string course.

Windows of the nave and transepts stand on a deep string-course, plain with chamfers above and below.

The mandorla is separated by a string course from the doorway; this was probably renewed when the rectangle of wall containing the mandorla was constructed. Imposts of the doorway capitals continue to the sides of the pediment as string course; they are chamfered and plain with a quirk in the bottom of the upright.

Corbel tables, corbels

Corbels on Nave N wall

(Nave N Wall)

NN1-3 An angel is unusual on a corbel. Probably Victorian.

NN4  Mask with large ears, holding open its jaws?      

NN5  Similar mask, no additions. [See also NTW5].

NN6  Man’s head.

NN7  Head in a close-fitting cap, the face below the eyes wrapped by folds of ?cloth. [Possibly original].

NN8  A beakhead biting on a roll moulding.    

NN9  A ram’s head. [Possibly original].

NN10  A muzzled animal. [Possibly original].

NN11  Man’s head.

NN12  Mask, broken. [Possibly original].

NN13  Mask. [Possibly original].

NN14  Two people with large heads on small bodies. The one on the L is holding a bow and a stringed instrument vertically. His expression is perhaps miserable, perhaps determined; compare Kirkburn NN 34. The person on the R is smiling.

NN15  Human head rotated sideways. [The ‘overturning’ of motifs is seen at Bishop Wilton and Birkin]. It has bad connotations, but this man has no expression of fear, horror or sorrow.

NN16  A mask hiding its eyes in its paws. This is probably a copy of an original.       

NN17  Mask.

NN18  Mask holding its mouth open.

Corbels on Nave S wall

21 corbels, probably all renewed.

NS1   A plain block                               

NS2   A moustachioed man smiling and showing his teeth.

NS3   A squatting man. [Compare NTW3].         

NS4   Two heads looking out.   

NS5   A mask.

NS6   A woman’s head. 

NS7   A man’s head?  

NS8   Uncertain subject.

NS9   Mask.

NS10  A man wearing a cap, smiling crookedly. [Compare Kirkburn corbel CN15].

NS11  A queen.

NS12  A mask, probably original. [Compare NTW 1, 3 and 5].

NS13  A mask.              

NS14  A muzzled mask. [Compare NN10].

NS15  The head of an armed man.

NS16  Mask [probably renewed].           

NS17  Pig-like mask. [Possibly original].

NS18  Man’s head.

NS19  Mask.

NS20  Mask with beak-like head.                     

NS21  Man’s head with tongue hanging out. 

Corbels on N transept

Corbels, North Transept East face (NTE)

NTE1  Three horizontal mouldings. [Possibly original].  

NTE2  A man pulling his beard

NTE3  A squatting man apparently clutching his ankles. [Compare NS3].

NTE4 and NTE5 are both weathered beyond recognition, but may be original.        

NTE6  A ram’s head.

NTE7  A muzzled animal head, possibly original. [Compare STW5, NS14, also NN10].

NTE8  Unrecognised subject.

Corbels, North Transept West face  (NTW)

NTW1  Mask with leaf or disc on its forehead.

NTW2  Human head

NTW3  Mask [compare NTW1].

NTW4  Three horizontal mouldings [compare NTE1].   

NTW5  Mask [compare NTW1].

Corbels on S transept

Corbels, South Transept West face  (STW)

STW1   Man with pointed ears, looking upwards.

STW2   Human head.

STW3   Broken mask. [Possibly original].

STW4   Human head.    

STW5   Muzzled animal [probably original].

STW6   Mask

Corbels, South Transept East face  (STE)

STE1  Mask

STE2  Man’s head.

STE3  Mask, much-weathered.

STE4  Man’s head.

STE5-7  Human heads, renewed. [The mouth of STE6 may be compared to Kirkburn, corbel CN 11].

Interior Features


Chancel arch/Apse arches

Apse arches to chapels, N and S transepts

There was a single chapel in each transept. The semi-circles of the apses was directly on the line of the exterior wall. Both arches are very similar; they have been blocked and a window inserted.

N transept arch

The apse arch in the N transept is seen from behind the organ; it is very similar to the accessible arch in the S transept. Arch of one order. Bases not recorded. Detached colonettes in a recess on the angle. Rings to L and R capitals have three horizontal flutes. L & R capitals are double scallop and plain, but the shields overhang the cones, which are sharply projected out to meet them. There is an angle tuck, and the projecting part of the cone above it is keeled. The arch is as for the S transept apse, below.

S transept arch

Arch of one order. Bases have plain and square plinth; torus in two zones, convex and concave; detached colonettes. L and R rings are plain; L and R capitals are single scallop with tuck on the angle. Impost plain and chamfered with a quirk at the bottom of the upright; it continues to the side walls as a string course. The arch: in the soffit, at the angle, a step, a row of hollow chevron, a step and a normal row of chevron; plain outside that, and made up to the junction with the later window. On the face, a row of chevron coming to the angle, then two rows of steps outside that. The arch finishes flush with the main wall fabric.

Tower/Transept arches

E crossing arch

There are four semi-circular arches at the crossing. The treatment is uniform apart from the  capitals and arches:

Bases are built up as a plain and square course containing all three orders; a plain and chamfered course for each order individually; a plain and square block having the round base to the column; the bases are convex below and concave above. See Comments.

Jambs. Each arch has a large half column common in the 1st order. Both 2nd orders have smaller half columns.

Rings throughout are plain and round; they are usually lightly chamfered and not finished off smoothly.

Capitals, of scallop type, vary slightly and are described for each crossing arch separately.

Impost throughout the crossing is plain and chamfered with a groove at the bottom of the upright. Bilson remarks that ‘in some cases the chamfer appears to be slightly hollow’ (1911, 9).

All four arches are composed of a first order common; a second order inside, to the crossing, and a second order outside, to chancel, transept or nave. Chevron orders are only used on the two W-facing arches. The variations in the four crossing arches are described separately.

E crossing arch, E face

1st order  Capitals common with W face of arch; L capital has the curve at the bottom of the shield emphasized by a slight lip. In the arch: soffit common with W; on the face, plain.

2nd order  L capital has single scallop with angle tuck; these scallops have the curve at the bottom of the shield emphasized by a slight lip. R capital has a knop as first order. Second order in the arch, plain and square.

Between the second order and the chancel N and S walls can be seen a scar where the Norman chancel wall began. 

E crossing arch, W face

1st order, L side. Scallop capital with four scallops on the main face, two on the side and on the angle the two adjacent scallops have below them a heavy, drop, knob, or knop (Bilson’s word for it). The scallops having the knop below them are deeper than those in the centre of the main face, compare the scallop capitals of the nave S doorway, 1st order.

1st order in the arch, in the soffit, two half rolls with an arris between; on the face, a row of chevron in the centre. The ‘v’s are not of regular size, for example, there are sometimes two and sometimes one on a block of similar size.

2nd order L capital, double scallop type which probably had a knop; this has been lost, together with the angle of the impost above. R capital has two scallops to N and one to W.

2nd order in the arch. In the soffit, a row of chevron with a step either side; a row of chevron on the angle; two steps and a row of centrifugal chevron on the face. The usual angled profile of the arch seems to have been rounded, so these rows of chevron flow continuously. Again, there is variation in the compression of the chevron folds.

N crossing arch

For lower parts of the arch, see E crossing arch.

N crossing arch, N face.

Note: Access to this area was somewhat restricted.

1st order capital, E side: scallop with heavy corner knop. First order capital, W side: multi-scallop capital. First order in the arch, plain and square.

2nd order capital, E side: scallop capital similar to first order.

2nd order capital on the W side of the N crossing arch does not exist due to the stair turret.

The arch is plain and square.

N crossing arch, S face.

1st order common. L capital has an angle knop, but it is less than elsewhere because the scallops are narrower as there are four and six of them. R capital has four scallops on the main face and two scallops on the side faces, and a heavy knop. In the arch, in the soffit, a pair of rolls; plain on the face.

2nd order, L capital has three scallops on the main face and two on the side, also a knop. Capital on the R side, three and two scallops with heavy knop, but broken off, along with the angle of the impost. In the arch, plain and square, flush with the wall.

A carving of the impost of the second order, R, on the broken angle, looks like half a star pattern; this design is not used anywhere else in the church.

S crossing arch

S crossing arch: capitals and arch. [For lower parts of the arch, see E crossing arch].

S crossing arch, N face

1st order. L capital has three plain scallops on main face and two on the side, with angle tuck. R capital has four scallops to main face, two to the side faces. In the arch, first order, two rolls in the soffit with an arris between; plain on the face.

2nd order, L capital two scallops on W face, one to N. The R capital has three scallops on E face and two to N; these scallops are emphasized by an incised line round the shield, while the cones are upright and then angled out to meet the shield. In the arch, plain and square voussoirs flush with the wall.

S crossing arch, S face

1st order same as with N face of arch.

2nd order L capital: the scallop at the angle has a knop; on each face is a scallop which overhangs the cone. Bilson (1911, 8) says ‘the cones incline upwards in the normal manner, but towards the top they break forward at a sharper angle to meet the scallops’. R capital has one and a half plain scallops on W face, one on S face. Second order arch is plain and square, flush with the wall.

W crossing arch

For lower parts of the arch, see E crossing arch.

W crossing arch, E face

1st order capitals as for W side. In the arch: soffit of arch common with W side; E face of arch is plain. 

2nd order  L capital has four scallops on the main face and three on its E side, with the scallops overhanging the cones slightly to create a shadow; knop on angle. R capital has two scallops to the S face, one to the E. Second order in the arch is plain and square, finishing flush with the wall.

W crossing arch, W face

W crossing arch, W face 

1st order L capital has four scallops on the main face, two on side. The pairs at the angles have a heavy knop, an angle tuck below it. R capital has three scallops on the main face and two on the sides. First order in the arch, in the soffit, two rolls with arris between. On the face of the arch, a row of centrifugal chevron of varying span.

2nd order L capital is double scallop, two to each face, with all the scallops overhanging the cones sufficiently to give a sharp shadow. Second order R capital has a heavy knob on the angle and cones angled out to meet the shields. Bilson (1911, 8) describes this as ‘a slight recession of the top of the cone behind the face of the scallop’. In the arch: rows of centrifugal chevron in soffit, on angle and on face, with two rows of steps between; again, the repeats are markedly irregular.

The arches of the W and E crossing arches are similar.

Interior Decoration

String courses

String courses in transepts and nave

String courses in the transepts are of two kinds. On the E wall they are a continuation of the impost of the capitals of the apse arches; these are chamfered below with a quirk at the bottom of the upright, and are the narrowest of the string-courses. Elsewhere in the transepts, the string course is plain with a quirked chamfer above and below.

The impost of the W crossing arch continues N and S into the side walls as a short length of string course. The string-course on the nave walls is lower than that and runs below the windows. W of the W crossing arch, there was a break in the work. To the E of the break, there is a short length of string-course of the same profile as that on the W and outer walls of the transepts, that is, plain with a quirked chamfer above and below. To the W of the break the string course is chamfered above and below, without quirks; it appears to be a deeper course than the other, but that may be an illusion.


Internal doorways

1. This doorway is the entrance to the vice in the N transept on the W wall (beside the organ). The jambs are plain and square, with a lintel and recessed pieced tympanum above. Bilson (1911, 12) says the stairway beyond it shows marks in the mortar of the centring used for the roof, also many masons’ marks. 

2. Doorways above crossing arches. These are blocked by various means, and have been affected by the changes in roof level. The doorways would have given entrance to floors across the nave and transepts. The doorway above the S crossing arch can be seen from the transept, but the N and E walls of the crossing cannot be seen. The upper floor was reached via the stair in the W wall of the N transept.

Doorway to vice, ht. of opening 1.705m
Doorway to vice, w. of opening 0.615m

Reset stones in vestry

The vestry or sacristy is entered through the N wall of the chancel. Pevsner and Neave say: ‘The chancel is a Perp rebuilding… The vestry on the N side may have originated as a contemporary chapel as it contained an altar slab until the later C19.’ (1995, 621).

The re-set pieces are:

1.  An arched stone used as the lintel to a recess in the W wall.

2.  Two rectangular stones high in the N wall, with remains of chevron detail. 

Gouged channel begins in from front at 0.035m
Gouged channel, depth varies 0.008-0.01m
Gouged channel, w. 0.016m
Mortise hole on R, depth 0.02m
Mortise hole on R, l. along arch 0.03m
Mortise hole on R, w. 0.025m
Mortise holes, distance apart 0.2m
Windowhead, depth of recess approx. 0.37m
Windowhead, ht of stone approx. 0.34m
Windowhead, w. of stone 0.71m
An arched stone used as the lintel to a recess

This is in the W wall. The arched stone and the two blocks below it to L and R have fine diagonal tooling, unlike the walls generally which are coarsely tooled. The arched stone appears to be a trimmed and reused window-head, with the formerly outside surface now facing into the room. The arch is less than a semi-circle. Just inside the arch, all around the curve, is a groove or channel of rectangular section; just behind the groove, overlapping it in part, are two smaller square holes, equidistant from the top of the arch. Further in, the smooth (plastered?) surface recedes, splaying more strongly outwards.

Two rectangular stones high in the N wall

These two stones have the remains of chevron patterning. The stones are rectangular and level with the general surface; the chevron rows are straight not curved. That on the L has a single row of chevron which has been cut back to be flush with the general surface. The pattern on the R may not have been so boldly cut, and seems more complete; it has several parallel chevrons rows. Function unknown. Too high to measure.




Font at W end of nave, between the S and N nave doorways.

The first level above the pavement is a wide circular plinth held together with metal staples. Next is a circular plinth on which are tightly grouped eight pairs of prominent rings acting as bases for the eight columns. The central core of this supporting stem shows as an arris at each interval in the columns. The columns are topped by more pairs of rings, not capitals.

The upper ring seems to be part of the bowl and has had some replacements and re-tooling. The bowl is a deep cup, rounded onto each of the clustered columns. There is a spray of symmetrical leaves on the bulge above each column, each one to a different design. On the upright side of the bowl is a horizontal band of pattern all round; it has pairs of leaves springing either side of a stem and there is a narrow rounded moulding bordering this horizontal pattern above and below. Whereas the clustered leaves are varied, those from the stem are regular. The rim of the font is plain, and rounded on the angle. The basin is fairly deep.

Depth of interior of bowl 0.285m
External diam. of bowl 0.745m
Ht. of bowl only 0.45m
Internal diam. of bowl 0.53m
Total Ht. 1.08m


General comments

The village lies at the foot of the Wolds scarp and on the dip slope of the Jurassic limestone outcrop, which widens here. Limestone was available from quarries to the west of the village near the York road: having this stone so near, together with the Archbishop and Chapter controlling the complete estate, no doubt helps to explain the building of such a fine large church.

Sir Stephen Glynne visited in 1863, before the Victorian restorations. He remarks on ‘four very good Norman arches’ at the crossing, and the uniformity of the transepts. At the time of his visit, only the nave was in use for services and it was partitioned off from the crossing, but in an interior view by George Arnold (1817), the view eastward is open. Glynne probably could not see very well inside the south porch, which he says was out of repair, but describes ‘within it a very noble Norman doorway, the arch of four orders. Some of the shafts have perished, but the capitals have varied sculpture… over the door is a vesica, surrounded by chevron moulding, and containing rude sculpture, apparently a representation of a bishop.’ He says that ‘some parts have good corbel tables externally’ (Butler 2007, 304-6).

John Bilson thought the simplicity of the church exemplary, and praised its ‘clear and logical expression of structure [and] simple straightforward use of materials’. His paper includes comprehensive plans and elevations by C. Ll. R. Tudor (son of a former incumbent), and also valuable photographs, especially those by J. V. Saunders (Bilson (1911). Joseph Morris (1919, 259) called Newbald church ‘perhaps the most interesting Norm. church in the whole East Riding, not even excepting Kirkburn.’ Pevsner and Neave (1995, 621), say it is ‘the most complete Norman church in the Riding.’

Comparisons to architecture elsewhere

Newbald church and York Minster:  It was suggested by Christopher Norton during a public lecture (Norton 2001; the lecture was in November 2000) that Newbald church might have been conceived in emulation of the Norman Minster of Archbishop Thomas of Bayeux. That building was still in use in the first half of the twelfth century but is now only known from excavation; it was cruciform with short apsed chapels in the transepts, an apse at the east end, a crossing tower, and its long nave was without aisles (Franklin 2012). Bilson likened Newbald to churches in Normandy, illustrating an eleventh-century example (1911, 4). An earlier church in the Riding built by the archbishop, or dean and chapter, of York, at Kilham, similarly has a spectacular gabled entrance, but that otherwise seems to have had only nave, chancel and W tower. See below, 'Scallop capitals'.

Comparisons to sculpture elsewhere 

Nave S doorway: first order, L capital, the mask on the angle: its big eyes, lack of teeth and lower jaw and its position on the angle recall a capital at St Denys’, York, which is now sadly decayed. In the York example, there is not quite such free foliage as at Newbald, but a leaf rises onto the upright above the bell there too; as it does on a capital at Healaugh, c.1150, this feature also occurs on a capital of the chancel arch at Adel. On the capital at Newbald, if the masks are conquered evil forced to yield up everlasting life, the little lion may be one of the redeemed looking up gratefully at the Saviour in the mandorla. This capital is the only one on the church with creatures carved.

Nave S doorway: Spiral arch of fourth order.  Were these gouged lines cut in situ? When compared to spirals at St Margaret’s-at-Cliffe, Kent (N doorway) and at Southwell Minster (crossing, etc.), this is very fine.

S transept doorway: first order arch. This chevron order is similar to the first order of the nave S doorway at Lockington, as is the carving of foliage on the inside of the capitals against the door.

Chancel arch: There are comparisons with capitals on the chancel arch at Lockington, also Goodmanham and Hunmanby.

Bridlington priory:  Bilson remarks on the leaf design on the S doorway, between the scallops of the R capital of first order (Bilson 1911, Fig.25; 30): this scallop capital, he says, has ‘a refined bit of scroll and leaf carving [between the cones], which seems to me to indicate that the twelfth century had entered on its last quarter when this carving was worked.’ In a footnote he compares it to a detail in a capital, then loose, thought to be from the destroyed cloister of Bridlington priory; capitals from both reconstructed arcades show foliate details between cones. Thurlby 1989 dates the Bridlington capitals to 1170-80; this period is extended to 1160 by Franklin 1989; the assemblage has been re-assessed by Stuart Harrison (Harrison 2006, 111-116).

Scallop capitals:  The scallops on the S nave doorway overhang their cones very slightly, emphasizing the form. This sort of subtle treatment is discussed by Bilson in relation to the capitals of the crossing (1911, 8). On the R capitals of orders three and four, the curve is emphasized by a slender raised edge, as also on the S transept doorway. See Thurlby 2014, 84-6, 89, where he names a number of churches around York that used the same forms of scallops, and suggests that the motifs derived from earlier work still then to be seen at York Minster and St Mary’s Abbey.

Carving on internal face of first order capitals of the four doorways. This feature is most elaborate on the S nave doorway, and least so on the N transept doorway, as might be expected. Both S doorways have foliage in this position, and in both cases a leaf overlaps onto the shield of the scallop. The N nave doorway has volutes turning onto the interior face as on the E side of the main doorway; the N transept doorway merely continues the scallops with raised edge, as on its exterior faces. Decoration in this position is unusual, but has been noted on the doorway at Lockington. Ornamental arches with patterning that continues onto the interior face occur at Bishop Wilton (south doorway), Kilnwick Percy (former main doorway) and Selby Abbey (N doorway into N porch).

Comments on gable and figure over S nave doorway

Bilson describes the figure in detail (1911, 32-5), pointing out that it is cut from a single oblong slab which reaches higher than the head and includes part of the plait border. It must be said that important parts of the figure are unreliable, though the pose is a standard one. The fieldworker would suggest that only the chest of the figure (shoulders, robes, etc) and its lower right arm have survived, sheltered from weather and damage. Drapery on the legs is worn, replaced or recut.

Bilson suggests the carving shows Christ seated, ‘with a rainbow round about the throne’, (Rev. 4:2-3; 5:1), that is, the mandorla is this rainbow. He saw traces of red paint on the mandorla but none on the figure, from which he said ‘considerable parts’ had been cut away. He compares its present state to a Buckler drawing in the British Museum (Add. Ms. No. 36433, fol. 160), which he says leaves blank the lower right parts of the figure, and where the head is shown by outline only, with ‘indications of the ears and lower edge of the beard but without any [of the] features which are now to be seen.’ He says the drawing indicates the long tress of hair on each shoulder; there is no nimbus. The book and hand are in the drawing, but have since been replaced by new stone. Bilson considers the present head to have been entirely reworked in old stone. The triangle of stone near the knee is also a replacement. (Bilson 1911, 31-2; 35). The raised right hand is definitely modern.  

Engravings mounted and framed in the church were published in the Antiquarian Itinerary, and dated 1815. They are by J. Greig from paintings by George Arnold, ARA; see also Butler 2007, 305, 306. In the 1815 engraving, the entrance was still under a large porch, and the mandorla was set back behind the plane of the doorway but with little supporting stonework. On the seated figure the drapery is complete in the lower right parts, and the head has its features, is round and without noticeable cap, hair or beard – but much of this could be wishful thinking. The main work on this area was in 1875.

Bilson 1911, 32, suggests the mandorla was originally in the same plane as the doorway and that ‘if the vesica was ever complete at the bottom, there would have been just sufficient space for it between the string over the doorway and a gable of about the same pitch as that of the main roofs.’ The horizontal string-course is itself close to the semicircle of the head of the doorway. It must have been spectacular - the play of the two circular forms, and the floating of the mandorla balanced on a thin horizontal line. Did it in this way represent the imminence of the Second Coming and Judgement? Christ appears in a vibrant mandorla in Spanish Beatus manuscripts, over crowds expecting Judgement. There are also parallels with the composition of the S entrance at Kilham church, despite the difference in visual language (there geometric) and subject (there the enlightenment of baptism); both designs have this thin line of string-course separating gable from doorway, heavenly from earthly levels. Kilham church also belonged to the York Chapter and may date from around 1130. The gable at Adel in the West Riding (subject, Judgement) might date from c.1150. The position of Christ, recessed in a mandorla over a main doorway, recalls the figure standing in a rectangular recess within a mandorla on the W front of Notre-Dame-la-Grande in Poitiers, which may be dated 1130 to 1150.

When complete, according to Bilson’s estimate, the gable would have had about the same pitch as the main roofs; the vesica would have been approximately 7’ 11” in height (2.4m). The height of the seated figure would be about 1.37m, almost life size. (Bilson 1911, 32, 33, fig. 21). This is only slightly smaller than the figures in the porch at Malmesbury Abbey, which are thought by the fieldworker to date from around 1150. As architectural components perhaps, rather than for sculptural style, Bilson (1911, 34, n.5) compares the sculpture to the standing figures from St Mary’s Abbey, now in the Yorkshire Museum. Although small passages might resemble each other, for example, the drapery on the right shoulder of Moses, as a general comparison the Newbald figure hardly looks so Gothic, the upper body is firm and Romanesque, the drapery on the chest is formalised and linear, not naturalistic.

General remark on corbels

‘Many’ of the corbels are modern; ‘some’ are original, according to Bilson (1911, 26). It is hard to decide what is original, because there may not only have been recutting of old corbels, for example, the single heads of men, but those corbels which seem to be genuinely old (because of their more hesitant workmanship, or because the corbel was reused broken) are in a style not seen at other churches. Though some of the Victorian corbels are all too obvious from their extravagant shaping, their subjects are worth listing as some have comparisons locally, while a few are unique and perhaps derived from what was here; there are original and copied versions of some designs. It is assumed, unless indicated, that all corbels are reworked or renewed.

N Transept, N doorway

It looks as though two types of stones were used on this doorway; here, even more clearly than on the other doorways, the inner parts are golden and the exterior and walls are whiteish. Although another part of the quarry might have been used for the specialist carved areas, it is also possible that the same stone was used throughout, but exposure could have had a whitening effect, perhaps from the growth of algae, or chemical change at the surface.

E Crossing arch

This arrangement is described by Bilson (1911, 8) as ‘not of the earliest type… the bases of these shafts are moulded, as elsewhere throughout the twelfth century work here, with a shallow hollow above a flat quarter-round, and stand on a chamfered plinth. The plinth is returned round the base of each shaft, not a single plinth under the three shafts as is common in earlier work, but the course below the plinth is brought out to the square, and does not follow the recessed plan of the plinth above’.

In the fieldworker's opinion, the variation of chevron spacing is not evidence of shoddy workmanship, but may be deliberate and produces a lively optical effect.

Comments on Font

A late Transitional font, according to Morris. Bilson believes the font would logically follow once the church was built, and that though its bowl is like 12th-century work, the design of the support indicates the early years of the 13th century (Bilson 1911, 35).

Observers notice a stylistic discordance between the bowl and the support, and it is possible to resolve this unease by suggesting that the bowl is the reworking of an early twelfth-century font, which was then set on an early thirteenth-century stem. It seems very likely, from the known policy of the bishop in encouraging parochial work by regular canons and from the spatial provision here, that the church was intended to have a parochial function; it would surely have had a font for some decades before the building was finished. That first font would probably have been the local type, a cylinder standing on the floor on a simple circular plinth. The lowest layer of plinth here is more worn than the smaller plinth grouping the circular cluster of columns; it is held together by metal staples, and it could have been the plinth of an earlier cylindrical font as seen, for example, at Burnby. Further, all dimensions of the bowl apart from its height are in the middle of the range for the cylindrical fonts of the Riding.

We might suppose that, towards the end of the twelfth century, a cylindrical font was inverted, perhaps reduced in height, rounded and marked to fit the eight column tops of the fashionable stem. Eight swellings match the columns; this sort of shaping can be seen, for example, on the four-sided Purbeck marble basin in Pocklington church.

The styles of foliage on the bowl look back to the Romanesque, even if the stem is in a 13th-century architectural fashion. The leaves in the horizontal band of pattern use an outline of fluted leaflets that is common in the mid-century, but the form of the stem itself is not familiar, namely the tapering triple sheath from which the leaves diverge. There is something like it on the label of the W doorway of St Mary’s, Shrewsbury, but both might have come independently from manuscript drawings.

The more or less symmetrical leaf designs on the bulge above each of the eight columns are varied in a Romanesque manner, and include some details which are echoed (but not closely) in work at Bridlington. Three of the foliage patterns on these lowest parts of the bowl include club-like growths (buds?) standing among leaves. They are built up in the same way as a detail on the ‘linen-fold’ capital from the cloister at Bridlington, but are in another style. It may be something an old hand copied from Bridlington, or it may be a Romanesque form not common in Yorkshire and the two examples have a common source elsewhere.

It has not been possible to compare the precise stone types used for lower plinth, stem and basin. They might all be the same but, if different, that variation might support the postulated reworking outlined above. Following visits to 13 fonts in the Riding in 2004, Dr Martyn Pedley thought that the best match for samples from churches at Speeton and Weaverthorpe was sandstones in the Middle Oxfordian Stage, Coralline Oolite formation of the Jurassic of E and N Yorkshire, and of that, with the Birdsall Calcareous Grit member. Fonts were likely to be from the same general rock horizon as the building stones, though of superior quality. Fonts particularly would require thickness of strata and well-sorted grain-size. The outcrops of Coralline Oolite around Malton would be a possible source for the stone used for cylindrical fonts. Market Weighton was the most southerly of place visited by Dr Pedley and the fieldworker in 2004; it was thought that the stone for the font and base there had come from further north, and was a Deltaic Middle Jurassic sandstone. Thus, if the font bowl at Newbald had been a standard cylindrical font, it might have a different lithology from the stem, which was presumably made of stone from the Newbald quarries.

The re-set arched stone in the vestry    

The window-head is only a 'possible' example of mid-century glazing. Photos were shown to Sarah Brown (University of York), who says that glass was the exception rather than the rule in the 12th century, but that the archaeological evidence certainly looked like glazing; Stuart Harrison said the groove could have been cut in later. Theophilus (Dodwell 1961, 47-58) has much to say on glass, and making lead cames, but finishes with setting his glazed panel in a wooden frame and fixing it to the opening with nails; Dodwell suggests a date for the text as 'towards the first half of the twelfth century'.

The curvature of the arch, not at present a full semicircle, would give some idea of the width of window openings in the lost chancel, or perhaps in one of the apses, but it has not been estimated.

I would like to thank Mr Mike Allderidge of Newbald for his expertise and assistance in following up the speculations on the font and also the window-head.


On the start of building, and assuming an apsed E end, Bilson says ‘from comparisons with the known dates of similar work, its commencement cannot be put earlier than c.1140, and may well be somewhat later’ (Bilson 1911, 4). This is based on the reasonable assumption that the lost east end resembled that at Birkin, ‘a nearly contemporary church’. This comparison would have been familiar to his audience; otherwise he suggests comparisons in Normandy, even churches of the eleventh century.

On the gable figure, Bilson (1911, 35) comments that ‘it is impossible to attribute this statue to an earlier date than the last quarter of the twelfth century… this period is also indicated by some details of the south doorway itself [that is, a detail between the cones of the R capital of the first order]. We may conclude that the church was begun somewhere near the middle of the twelfth century, and that its erection occupied a considerable part of the second half of the century.’ On the nave N doorway, 2nd and 3rd orders, he says, ‘The zigzag of these two orders is of a rather more advanced type than those with convex general profile’ on the transept doorways (Bilson 1911, 27). He says that the capitals of the first order of the nave S doorway, are of ‘more advanced character than [those] of the S transept’ (Bilson 1911, 30). The belfry stage of the tower, with larger stones, belongs to the 13th century.

It may be seen as presumptive for the fieldworker to contest with someone such as John Bilson, but it is reasonable to be cautious on extending the date for completion of the building into the last quarter of the twelfth century. Regarding the supposed advanced nature of the figure in the mandorla, there is very little that is genuine left of it. One exceptional sculptor might have been imported to achieve that, and to bring the technical expertise to make the successful spiral of the 4th order arch below. There is little sculpture here apart from the foliage capitals of the two south doorways (as compared with architectural refinements by the craftsmen on the nuances of scallop capitals). The font, which Bilson implies was a finishing touch to the church, might not have been altered until well after the church was finished, if its history was as suggested above.

As mentioned above, Christopher Norton has compared the plan of the completed church to that of the early post-Conquest York Minster built by Archbishop Thomas of Bayeux in the 1090s. The plan was continued when work was resumed after the break just W of the crossing, and the aisleless nave was built (Bilson 1911, 23-4). That so apparently old-fashioned a style would still be followed in the second half of the twelfth century by the canons of St Peter is not so odd, if the prevalence of unaisled naves in churches served by regular canons is acknowledged: the plan had a long history, was in use at other churches in the region, for example, probably Bridlington priory, and was suited to the work of regular canons (Franklin 2014, especially 78, 81, 86-7).

There are comparisons for the S nave doorway capitals at Lockington and Goodmanham. The L capital of the first order recalls particularly work at Stillingfleet and at St Denys, Walmgate, York; these churches elsewhere use motifs seen, for example, at Etton in the East Riding. These are not late twelfth-century buildings.

Perhaps all that is required to give the feel of later work to a building of the mid-century and third quarter is for the Chapter to have engaged master craftsmen for a few remarkable details and the figure.

Bilson’s article is illustrated with photographs of sculptural detail that highlight the decay that has occurred in the intervening century, the stone sometimes coming off in chunks, ‘overnight’ as the churchwarden said in 2005. The quality of what remains is high, and its surface is still pure and crisp, though rough after solution of the matrix; this surface attracts grass mowings like no other church. There are cracks opening in the walling, notably of the S transept, probably due to settlement on the slope or the sapping of the massive trees (they have also changed since Bilson’s plate 3 was taken). Some renewal of stonework of the plinth of the S transept was done in 2011. The doorway and mandorla have recently been restored, largely due to water getting into the upper structure and leaking out through the arches. Some voussoirs, imposts and bases have been renewed; the stone matches very well. In 2016 the arches of the S transept doorway had deteriorated. The corbels are largely Victorian replacements.


  • J. Bilson, 'Newbald Church', Yorkshire Archaeological Journal 21 (1911), 1-44. 

  • L. A. S. Butler (ed.), 'The Yorkshire Church Notes of Sir Stephen Glynne (1825-1874)', Yorkshire Archaeological Society Record Series 159 (Woodbridge, 2007).

  • C. R. Dodwell (ed. and trans.), Theophilus, De diversis artibus. (Oxford, 1961).

  • J. A. Franklin, 'Bridlington Priory: an Augustinian Church and Cloister in the Twelfth Century' In British Archaeological Association Conference Transactions 1983 (Leeds, 1989), 44-61.

  • J. Franklin, 'Augustinian and other Canons’ Churches in Romanesque Europe: The Significance of the Aisleless Cruciform Plan' In Architecture and Interpretation: Essays for Eric Fernie, ed. J. A. Franklin, T. A. Heslop and C. Stevenson (Woodbridge, 2012).

  • S. A. Harrison, 'Benedictine and Augustinian cloister arcades in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries in England, Wales and Scotland', Journal of the British Archaeological Association 159 (2006), 105-130.

  • G. Lawton, Collectio rerum ecclesiasticarum de diocesi Eboracensi (London, 1842).

  • J. E. Morris, The East Riding of Yorkshire, 2nd edn. (London, 1919).

  • C. E. Norton, 'Archbishop Thomas of Bayeux and the Norman Cathedral at York', Borthwick Papers 100 (York, 2001).

  • N. Pevsner and D. Neave, Yorkshire: York and the East Riding, 2nd edn. (London, 1995).

  • M. Thurlby, 'Observations on the Twelfth-Century Sculpture from Bridlington Priory' In British Archaeological Association Conference Transactions 1983 (Leeds, 1989), 3-43.

  • M. Thurlby, 'The Abbey Church of Lessay (Manche) and Romanesque Architecture in North-east England' Antiquaries Journal 94 (2014), 71-92.

  • Victoria County History: East Riding of Yorkshire. IV (London, 1979).


Site Location
Newbald: North Newbald
National Grid Reference
SE 912 366 
now: East Riding of Yorkshire
pre-1974 traditional (England and Wales): Yorkshire, East Riding
now: York
medieval: York
now: St Nicholas
medieval: St Nicholas (Lawton 1842, 358 )
Type of building/monument
Parish church  
Report authors
Rita Wood 
Visit Date
19 Jul, 13 Oct 2005; 13 Jan 2016, 23 Jan 2016