North Newbald is a village in the East Riding of North Yorkshire, about 3.5 miles S of Market Weighton. The village is near the Roman road from Brough to Malton. The name means ‘new build’ and is an Anglian place-name recorded in the 10th century.
The church of St. Nicholas, which is partially hidden behind large trees, is a large, plain, cruciform building, but contains a significant amount of high-quality sculpture. It has an unaisled nave, central tower, N and S transepts, chancel with N vestry. The tower is Romanesque to the chamfered string course just above the roofs.
There were restorations in 1864, 1875 and 1891-2 (Pevsner and Neave 1995, 622). The church as it was in 1864 is shown in Bilson 1911, pl. 3. The elevation drawings in his article show the low roofs of late medieval date; the nave and transepts had their roofs returned to the original height in 1875 and 1892 respectively. The S doorway to the nave was restored in 1875; this work included the building of the rectangular surround to the mandorla and extensive renewal of the figure of Christ.
The twelfth-century chancel, which had probably been apsed, was later replaced by a Perpendicular one. In the same period the transept chapels and their original apses were removed, the entrance arches were blocked up, and windows inserted. As far as the lost E end is concerned, John Bilson is content to compare the remains to the surviving example of an apsed church at Birkin, ‘an almost contemporary church’. Internally, there is a break in the masonry just W of the crossing, but no change of design except in the detail of the string course. With one’s back to the traceried W window, the 6-bay nave now appears largely as when it was built. The effect of the high plain ‘dado’ and the indirect lighting directs the eye eastwards.
There is sculpture on the four doorways; inside there are chevron arches at the crossing, string-courses, windows, and also a font.
According to the DB, ‘A church is there, and a priest’. At some time, it was two townships but one parish.
The place-name was the equivalent of simple ‘Newbald’ in DB, and the present distinction of two Newbalds, North and South, may have arisen with the division of the estate and the establishment of the prebends of North Newbald and South Newbald, perhaps in the later twelfth century. The 28 carucates at Newbald and other property later endowed the two prebends.
A doorway of three orders. This doorway and those of the transepts preserve their thresholds, a slab across the bottom of the opening forming a step down to the floor level inside.
|h. of capital incl. necking||0.28m|
|h. of opening approx.||2.7m|
|largest cross, ht.||0.12m|
|largest cross, w.||0.008m|
|w. of opening||0.96m|
Bilson describes a cross carved ‘on the face of the inner attached shaft to the east jamb of this doorway, on the stone immediately below the capital, an incised cross 3 ½ x 4 ¾ inches, the cross arm 1 7/8 inches down; below is another 3 ½ inches each way’; this is ‘of rougher execution… apparently an imitation’ (1911, 27, 29). He describes the crosses in detail, and they are still there. Compare S doorway, which has similar but less elaborate crosses on the 1st order half-columns on the E side, and more casual ones on the 4th order shaft.
Plain ring; L and R capitals plain and upright, with two scallops on the reveal, one on the face, the scallops and upright above are deep and plain. There are two wide volutes on the angles; both volutes have a shell- or leaf-like under-surface (as S nave doorway, R capital). It is not possible to open this doorway now, but it can be supposed that the similar volutes on the S angles of both capitals are continued on the S face, as on S Nave doorway, R capital.
Imposts throughout chamfered and plain with a quirk near the bottom of the upright.
Plain plinths, shallow ring with concave and convex layers. Detached shaft much weathered. L and R capitals the same, with heavy angle volute with spirals (as used on S nave doorway) and less pronounced volutes with spirals at either side. In the arch, a row of centrifugal chevron on the angle with two steps outside it; in the soffit, a row of hollow chevron with two steps between it and the angle row of chevron.
Bases and shafts as for second order. L and R capitals the same, having a plain single scallop with angle tuck. In the arch, on the face, a row of centrifugal chevron meeting another on the soffit point to point on the joint. In the centre of each voussoir, the angle shows.
h. of capital incl. necking 0.28m
largest cross w. 0.008m ht. 0.12m
A round-headed doorway of four orders and label. It occupies the 5th bay and adjacent pilasters of the S wall of the nave. Immediately above the stonework of the doorway is a string course. Then, stepped back from it by about a foot (0.3m), is a rectangle of modern stonework containing most of a mandorla with a figure of Christ enthroned.
On the ashlar of the W jamb Bilson shows a mass-dial (Bilson 1911, fig. 21). There are various crosses of a possibly 12th-century type carved on the columns on the E side - larger, more important ones on the first and second order columns, a mass of crosses on the fourth. The largest, best placed, cross measured 0.097m high and 0.046m wide. Compare N nave doorway.
There has been some restoration recently (2016) which is not taken account of in the text: discrepancies may occur in the description of the imposts and bases.
Additional measurements of the mandorla and figure, by John Bilson, are given in Comments.
|h. of capitals incl. necking||0.275m - 0.29m|
|h. of opening||3.16m|
|w. of double capital, order one, W face approx||0.49m|
|w. of opening||1.367m|
Base, a square plain plinth. Twin rings much worn, perhaps like those restored to the outer orders. Above these, a pair of coursed half columns with an arris between, both columns on the R having an incised cross.
Rings plain throughout, where they survive. Double capital on L has finely cut, vigorous foliage trails resembling manuscript work. Crisply-cut, and so lively that a curl surges onto a scallop on the left half of the capital. The S angle has a mask on the corner which emits foliage; there is a bead at the top of its forehead, in the cusp of the scallops that meet on the angle. It has big eyes, but no teeth or lower jaw. In the N half of the E face, a small lion is in the foliage, it looks upwards. It has a curly mane: it recalls a lion at Stillingfleet, though that wears a collar. On the angle against the church door, another mask is emitting foliage onto the E and N faces of the capital. The mask is similar to that at the opposite end of the capital, with big eyes and thin drooping ears.The ornamentation of capitals on the inside face against the door is also seen on the three other doorways. Above the bells of the double capital, the main face has four scallops, two larger outer ones and two smaller ones between; the end faces have a large single scallop. All these are plain. The scallop on the N face is so well preserved, except for some efflorescence, that the setting-out lines and centres can be seen.
The R double capital is symmetrical, with large spiral volutes which are reeded in a leaflike manner on the angle, the volute on the NW angle continues onto the N face of the capital against the door. The cones are lightly reeded or divided. On the W face, the shields have plain borders enclosing an inverted fan of five leaves. Bilson pointed out the detail in shallow relief tucked in between the two central cones (Bilson 1911, 30). See Comments for his comparison of this detail to work at Bridlington priory. The capital is plain above.
Impost, the same throughout, is chamfered with a deep upright having a groove at the bottom.
L capital. Compare Bilson 1911, fig. 23. Plain ring. A flat leafy form springs from the angle and makes a central volute at its tip; to each side three spiralling forms grow from the central blade and hang down beside it; to the sides, the cone is plain. Above, the two scallops on each face are again unequal in size with smaller ones on the angle; plain above. Impost as before, but a large part has flaked off, or been broken off, recently (2005).
R capital. Plain ring. The sides of the capital have shallow cones with inverted scallops above on the S face; a heavy spiral volute on the angle; normal scallop on W face. Plain above. Impost as before.
L capital, the shallow cones or reeding in the background are without any shields above, but have free spirals. A broken volute had a pair of spirals like those remaining at the top and sides (Bilson 1911, fig. 23). The upper part of the capital is plain.
R capital. This has reeded sides as the L capital. The angle volute below the two scallops at the angle has been lost (Bilson 1911, fig. 23). There are four semicircles similar to shields, but these have been developed as scale pattern on the W face; on the S face there are two small spirals below the semicircles. Plain above up to the impost.
Base much as before, but perhaps looks more authentic. Detached shafts, with incised crosses on the R side.
Capitals, same both sides. Shallow cones almost parallel as before; with two scallops on each face. On the angle a plain volute bulges down from beneath the scallops. A similar capital is on the chancel arch at Lockington.
Fourth order, in the arch. A large angle roll, with plain fillets against the third order and the label. The roll has been renewed in part, but was cut with a very well-adjusted spiral design, formed by hollows gouged in the plain roll.
Label: in the form of voussoirs, plain and flush with wall surface.
Above the doorway, but set about a foot (0.3m) back from it, rises the mandorla with Christ enthroned, his left hand holding a book, his right hand raised in blessing. The rectangular projection in which the mandorla and its statue are set is entirely modern. It was erected when the porch was removed in 1875. Compare the situation under the porch in 1815, when the statue was already set back from the plane of the doorway but without much support or surround.
The mandorla is composed of three successive orders made of long stones as for a label, not narrow stones as for voussoirs. Its maximum radius is the same as the outer order of the doorway (that is, order 4, the spiral). The first or innermost order of the mandorla is carved with a flat threefold plait on the face; plain inside. Next is an order of centrifugal chevron on the face and normal to the soffit, and lastly a moulding with a roll on the angle and a hollow on the face; this acts as a label, being slightly prominent from the wall surface and able to shed water.
A round-headed doorway of two orders. This is the plainest of the four here. The interior face of the doorway has slots for a closing bar.
|h. of opening||2.34m|
|ht. of capital and ring||0.27m|
|w. of opening||0.92m|
A large half column in the reveal rising straight from the threshold, plain on the face. Plain ring. L and R capitals the same: double scallop on the reveal, single on the face. The relief is low but clarified by the shield having been sunk a little relative to the cone (compare treatment of capitals of the crossing). The S face of these capitals, against the door, is carved with cone and scallop in the same manner. Impost as all other doorways, chamfered with a deep upright and a quirk near the angle. In the arch, a large half roll in the soffit, on the face a row of hollow centrifugal chevron with a step outside it.
The bases on this order are water-holding, and later replacements (Bilson, 1911, 17). Detached shafts. Plain ring. L and R capitals the same, two scallops on each face, treated as first order. In the arch: on the face, a row of centrifugal chevron; in the soffit a row of chevron. This order finishes flush with the wall with no label.
Round-headed doorway of three orders and ornamented label. A crack has opened up along joint lines and the arch is distorted. Some stones are fracturing under the strain. On the visit in 2016, white and dark grey staining had developed.
|1st order, R capital, ht. incl. necking||0.28m|
|1st order, R capital, max. w. W face||0.28m|
|h. of opening to threshold||2.56m|
|w. of opening||0.99m|
L ring plain; scallop capital of usual form, that is, the shields do not overhang and are not otherwise emphasised. Two scallops to E face, one to S. The interior or N face of the capital has one scallop and the cone is carved with a rather wandering foliage pattern in low relief. On the R, ring with spiral pattern, of which the main strand is hollow and the peak between successive hollows has a central groove or quirk. Much of this ring has broken off, but can be seen in Bilson 1911, fig. 26. The capital too has lost a major part of its decoration on the SW angle but the inner, N, face against the door is carved, and is virtually undamaged. It has rich fluted leaves which sometimes fold back on themselves; there is similar work at St Denys, York. The foliage is symmetrical about the angles. A fringe of upright flutes or leaves just above the ring is seen at churches often styled ‘Yorkshire School’. The scallops of this capital are plain but emphasized by a raised rim edged by a narrow moulding. Impost is the same throughout, plain and chamfered with a quirk at the angle.
R capital. Ring has a hollow spiral pattern, but is largely broken away the angle. On each face two cones with between them at the top a rectangular projection. Above this are incised two spiral volutes with a ‘v’ between them fitting into the projection, and above is that another incised line parallel to the top of the previous and continuing along both W and S faces.
L ring in two rounded horizontal zones, these are cabled in opposite directions. The bell of the capital has an intricate woven foliage net formed of a double strand, not noticeably symmetrical. The ends of the strands are few but very delicate, tiny doubled leaves, very soft and new-looking. Above are two plain scallops on each face, making a plain volute on the angle; these scallops project over the almost vertical sides of the capital.
R ring plain, capital has two cones and two plain scallops on each face.
The jamb is plain and square, the impost has a chamfer, quirk and upright on the inner face, but is flush with the wall on the S face. As elsewhere here, the label finishes flush with the wall, but this arch is highly ornamented. In the soffit, a step; on the angle, a row of centrifugal chevron and two steps outside it on the face. The zigs are noticeably of varied widths, for example, just to the left of the apex there are two on one stone.
Windows of nave and transepts are quite large. There are oculi in the gable walls of the transepts. No identifiably 12th-century windows are seen in the square turret in the angle of nave and N transept. See also window-head reset in vestry.
The end wall of both transepts had an oculus in the gable. At one time the transept roof level was reduced to a point just above the oculi (see elevations in Bilson 1911, figs. 10, 11, and early views of the church). The transept roof levels were restored in 1892. The oculus in S transept S wall is a modern copy of the one on the N gable (Bilson, 1911, 22). Bilson suggests the oculi lit a floor level across the transepts.
The inner ring or order is plain, the outer is flush with the wall and given a row of centrifugal chevron with one step outside it.
[For more illustrations of windows, see under String Courses].
The 6-bay nave had 3 windows on the N wall, all E of the N doorway; there were 4 windows in the S wall, all to the E of the S doorway. There is no trace of a window in bay 6 of the S nave wall, though one is shown in the 1815 view of the church; this probably appeared through a fault in copying from an original sketch. A Perpendicular window, inserted in bay 2 of the S wall of the nave, has been restored to its original form.
A string course ends where the apse formerly projected and where the original chancel was taken down. This has a fairly deep plain upright, and is chamfered above and below. For further signs of the transept apses in the wall fabric, see Bilson 1911, 12, 16.
The gables of the transepts are separated from the rectangle of wall below by a string course.
Windows of the nave and transepts stand on a deep string-course, plain with chamfers above and below.
The mandorla is separated by a string course from the doorway; this was probably renewed when the rectangle of wall containing the mandorla was constructed. Imposts of the doorway capitals continue to the sides of the pediment as string course; they are chamfered and plain with a quirk in the bottom of the upright.
(Nave N Wall)
NN1-3 An angel is unusual on a corbel. Probably Victorian.
NN4 Mask with large ears, holding open its jaws?
NN5 Similar mask, no additions. [See also NTW5].
NN6 Man’s head.
NN7 Head in a close-fitting cap, the face below the eyes wrapped by folds of ?cloth. [Possibly original].
NN9 A ram’s head. [Possibly original].
NN10 A muzzled animal. [Possibly original].
NN11 Man’s head.
NN12 Mask, broken. [Possibly original].
NN13 Mask. [Possibly original].
NN14 Two people with large heads on small bodies. The one on the L is holding a bow and a stringed instrument vertically. His expression is perhaps miserable, perhaps determined; compare Kirkburn NN 34. The person on the R is smiling.
NN15 Human head rotated sideways. [The ‘overturning’ of motifs is seen at Bishop Wilton and Birkin]. It has bad connotations, but this man has no expression of fear, horror or sorrow.
NN16 A mask hiding its eyes in its paws. This is probably a copy of an original.
NN18 Mask holding its mouth open.
21 corbels, probably all renewed.
NS1 A plain block
NS2 A moustachioed man smiling and showing his teeth.
NS3 A squatting man. [Compare NTW3].
NS4 Two heads looking out.
NS5 A mask.
NS6 A woman’s head.
NS7 A man’s head?
NS8 Uncertain subject.
NS10 A man wearing a cap, smiling crookedly. [Compare Kirkburn corbel CN15].
NS11 A queen.
NS12 A mask, probably original. [Compare NTW 1, 3 and 5].
NS13 A mask.
NS14 A muzzled mask. [Compare NN10].
NS15 The head of an armed man.
NS16 Mask [probably renewed].
NS17 Pig-like mask. [Possibly original].
NS18 Man’s head.
NS20 Mask with beak-like head.
NS21 Man’s head with tongue hanging out.
Corbels, North Transept East face (NTE)
NTE1 Three horizontal mouldings. [Possibly original].
NTE2 A man pulling his beard
NTE3 A squatting man apparently clutching his ankles. [Compare NS3].
NTE4 and NTE5 are both weathered beyond recognition, but may be original.
NTE6 A ram’s head.
NTE7 A muzzled animal head, possibly original. [Compare STW5, NS14, also NN10].
NTE8 Unrecognised subject.
Corbels, North Transept West face (NTW)
NTW1 Mask with leaf or disc on its forehead.
NTW2 Human head
NTW3 Mask [compare NTW1].
NTW4 Three horizontal mouldings [compare NTE1].
NTW5 Mask [compare NTW1].
Corbels, South Transept West face (STW)
STW1 Man with pointed ears, looking upwards.
STW2 Human head.
STW3 Broken mask. [Possibly original].
STW4 Human head.
STW5 Muzzled animal [probably original].
Corbels, South Transept East face (STE)
STE2 Man’s head.
STE3 Mask, much-weathered.
STE4 Man’s head.
STE5-7 Human heads, renewed. [The mouth of STE6 may be compared to Kirkburn, corbel CN 11].
There was a single chapel in each transept. The semi-circles of the apses was directly on the line of the exterior wall. Both arches are very similar; they have been blocked and a window inserted.
The apse arch in the N transept is seen from behind the organ; it is very similar to the accessible arch in the S transept. Arch of one order. Bases not recorded. Detached colonettes in a recess on the angle. Rings to L and R capitals have three horizontal flutes. L & R capitals are double scallop and plain, but the shields overhang the cones, which are sharply projected out to meet them. There is an angle tuck, and the projecting part of the cone above it is keeled. The arch is as for the S transept apse, below.
Arch of one order. Bases have plain and square plinth; torus in two zones, convex and concave; detached colonettes. L and R rings are plain; L and R capitals are single scallop with tuck on the angle. Impost plain and chamfered with a quirk at the bottom of the upright; it continues to the side walls as a string course. The arch: in the soffit, at the angle, a step, a row of hollow chevron, a step and a normal row of chevron; plain outside that, and made up to the junction with the later window. On the face, a row of chevron coming to the angle, then two rows of steps outside that. The arch finishes flush with the main wall fabric.
There are four semi-circular arches at the crossing. The treatment is uniform apart from the capitals and arches:
Bases are built up as a plain and square course containing all three orders; a plain and chamfered course for each order individually; a plain and square block having the round base to the column; the bases are convex below and concave above. See Comments.
Rings throughout are plain and round; they are usually lightly chamfered and not finished off smoothly.
All four arches are composed of a first order common; a second order inside, to the crossing, and a second order outside, to chancel, transept or nave. Chevron orders are only used on the two W-facing arches. The variations in the four crossing arches are described separately.
2nd order L capital has single scallop with angle tuck; these scallops have the curve at the bottom of the shield emphasized by a slight lip. R capital has a knop as first order. Second order in the arch, plain and square.
1st order, L side. Scallop capital with four scallops on the main face, two on the side and on the angle the two adjacent scallops have below them a heavy, drop, knob, or knop (Bilson’s word for it). The scallops having the knop below them are deeper than those in the centre of the main face, compare the scallop capitals of the nave S doorway, 1st order.
1st order in the arch, in the soffit, two half rolls with an arris between; on the face, a row of chevron in the centre. The ‘v’s are not of regular size, for example, there are sometimes two and sometimes one on a block of similar size.
2nd order in the arch. In the soffit, a row of chevron with a step either side; a row of chevron on the angle; two steps and a row of centrifugal chevron on the face. The usual angled profile of the arch seems to have been rounded, so these rows of chevron flow continuously. Again, there is variation in the compression of the chevron folds.
Note: Access to this area was somewhat restricted.
The arch is plain and square.
1st order common. L capital has an angle knop, but it is less than elsewhere because the scallops are narrower as there are four and six of them. R capital has four scallops on the main face and two scallops on the side faces, and a heavy knop. In the arch, in the soffit, a pair of rolls; plain on the face.
2nd order, L capital has three scallops on the main face and two on the side, also a knop. Capital on the R side, three and two scallops with heavy knop, but broken off, along with the angle of the impost. In the arch, plain and square, flush with the wall.
1st order. L capital has three plain scallops on main face and two on the side, with angle tuck. R capital has four scallops to main face, two to the side faces. In the arch, first order, two rolls in the soffit with an arris between; plain on the face.
2nd order, L capital two scallops on W face, one to N. The R capital has three scallops on E face and two to N; these scallops are emphasized by an incised line round the shield, while the cones are upright and then angled out to meet the shield. In the arch, plain and square voussoirs flush with the wall.
2nd order L capital: the scallop at the angle has a knop; on each face is a scallop which overhangs the cone. Bilson (1911, 8) says ‘the cones incline upwards in the normal manner, but towards the top they break forward at a sharper angle to meet the scallops’. R capital has one and a half plain scallops on W face, one on S face. Second order arch is plain and square, flush with the wall.
2nd order L capital has four scallops on the main face and three on its E side, with the scallops overhanging the cones slightly to create a shadow; knop on angle. R capital has two scallops to the S face, one to the E. Second order in the arch is plain and square, finishing flush with the wall.
1st order L capital has four scallops on the main face, two on side. The pairs at the angles have a heavy knop, an angle tuck below it. R capital has three scallops on the main face and two on the sides. First order in the arch, in the soffit, two rolls with arris between. On the face of the arch, a row of centrifugal chevron of varying span.
2nd order L capital is double scallop, two to each face, with all the scallops overhanging the cones sufficiently to give a sharp shadow. Second order R capital has a heavy knob on the angle and cones angled out to meet the shields. Bilson (1911, 8) describes this as ‘a slight recession of the top of the cone behind the face of the scallop’. In the arch: rows of centrifugal chevron in soffit, on angle and on face, with two rows of steps between; again, the repeats are markedly irregular.
The arches of the W and E crossing arches are similar.
String courses in the transepts are of two kinds. On the E wall they are a continuation of the impost of the capitals of the apse arches; these are chamfered below with a quirk at the bottom of the upright, and are the narrowest of the string-courses. Elsewhere in the transepts, the string course is plain with a quirked chamfer above and below.
The impost of the W crossing arch continues N and S into the side walls as a short length of string course. The string-course on the nave walls is lower than that and runs below the windows. W of the W crossing arch, there was a break in the work. To the E of the break, there is a short length of string-course of the same profile as that on the W and outer walls of the transepts, that is, plain with a quirked chamfer above and below. To the W of the break the string course is chamfered above and below, without quirks; it appears to be a deeper course than the other, but that may be an illusion.
1. This doorway is the entrance to the vice in the N transept on the W wall (beside the organ). The jambs are plain and square, with a lintel and recessed pieced tympanum above. Bilson (1911, 12) says the stairway beyond it shows marks in the mortar of the centring used for the roof, also many masons’ marks.
2. Doorways above crossing arches. These are blocked by various means, and have been affected by the changes in roof level. The doorways would have given entrance to floors across the nave and transepts. The doorway above the S crossing arch can be seen from the transept, but the N and E walls of the crossing cannot be seen. The upper floor was reached via the stair in the W wall of the N transept.
|Doorway to vice, ht. of opening||1.705m|
|Doorway to vice, w. of opening||0.615m|
The vestry or sacristy is entered through the N wall of the chancel. Pevsner and Neave say: ‘The chancel is a Perp rebuilding… The vestry on the N side may have originated as a contemporary chapel as it contained an altar slab until the later C19.’ (1995, 621).
The re-set pieces are:
1. An arched stone used as the lintel to a recess in the W wall.
2. Two rectangular stones high in the N wall, with remains of chevron detail.
|Gouged channel begins in from front at||0.035m|
|Gouged channel, depth varies||0.008-0.01m|
|Gouged channel, w.||0.016m|
|Mortise hole on R, depth||0.02m|
|Mortise hole on R, l. along arch||0.03m|
|Mortise hole on R, w.||0.025m|
|Mortise holes, distance apart||0.2m|
|Windowhead, depth of recess approx.||0.37m|
|Windowhead, ht of stone approx.||0.34m|
|Windowhead, w. of stone||0.71m|
This is in the W wall. The arched stone and the two blocks below it to L and R have fine diagonal tooling, unlike the walls generally which are coarsely tooled. The arched stone appears to be a trimmed and reused window-head, with the formerly outside surface now facing into the room. The arch is less than a semi-circle. Just inside the arch, all around the curve, is a groove or channel of rectangular section; just behind the groove, overlapping it in part, are two smaller square holes, equidistant from the top of the arch. Further in, the smooth (plastered?) surface recedes, splaying more strongly outwards.
These two stones have the remains of chevron patterning. The stones are rectangular and level with the general surface; the chevron rows are straight not curved. That on the L has a single row of chevron which has been cut back to be flush with the general surface. The pattern on the R may not have been so boldly cut, and seems more complete; it has several parallel chevrons rows. Function unknown. Too high to measure.
Font at W end of nave, between the S and N nave doorways.
The first level above the pavement is a wide circular plinth held together with metal staples. Next is a circular plinth on which are tightly grouped eight pairs of prominent rings acting as bases for the eight columns. The central core of this supporting stem shows as an arris at each interval in the columns. The columns are topped by more pairs of rings, not capitals.
The upper ring seems to be part of the bowl and has had some replacements and re-tooling. The bowl is a deep cup, rounded onto each of the clustered columns. There is a spray of symmetrical leaves on the bulge above each column, each one to a different design. On the upright side of the bowl is a horizontal band of pattern all round; it has pairs of leaves springing either side of a stem and there is a narrow rounded moulding bordering this horizontal pattern above and below. Whereas the clustered leaves are varied, those from the stem are regular. The rim of the font is plain, and rounded on the angle. The basin is fairly deep.
|Depth of interior of bowl||0.285m|
|External diam. of bowl||0.745m|
|Ht. of bowl only||0.45m|
|Internal diam. of bowl||0.53m|
J. Bilson, 'Newbald Church', Yorkshire Archaeological Journal 21 (1911), 1-44.
L. A. S. Butler (ed.), 'The Yorkshire Church Notes of Sir Stephen Glynne (1825-1874)', Yorkshire Archaeological Society Record Series 159 (Woodbridge, 2007).
C. R. Dodwell (ed. and trans.), Theophilus, De diversis artibus. (Oxford, 1961).
J. A. Franklin, 'Bridlington Priory: an Augustinian Church and Cloister in the Twelfth Century' In British Archaeological Association Conference Transactions 1983 (Leeds, 1989), 44-61.
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