St Peter, East Marton, Yorkshire, West Riding

Feature Sets (5)

Description

East Marton is also known as Marton-in-Craven, and, together with West Marton, is called Marton (Pevsner; Leach and Pevsner), Martons Ambo (Borthwick Institute) or Martons Both (locally).

St Peter's is a small Dales church in a small Dales village between Skipton and Clitheroe. The village street descends steeply from the main road, the churchyard is on the hillside near the bottom. Between the church and the river (now made into part of the Leeds and Liverpool Canal) are the platforms marking the site of medieval buildings; these are shown on OS map of 1852 as ‘Old Hall’. The church has a broad early tower with small windows; in the S wall of the tower are two slit windows (ground and first floor) with what were probably one-piece window-heads but are split. In the W wall of the tower, the lower storey has a round-headed window-head, while the higher level has one made with two flat stones meeting at a point. The N wall has a window with a one-piece window-head.  The low nave, N vestry and chancel are largely an 18thc rebuild with five reused chevron voussoirs in the exterior walls of the nave and chancel. Inside, the S arcade is Perp, and there is a plain cylindrical font. There is also a fragment of a carved pillar, originating from St Helen’s Well at Thorp Arch near Tadcaster (Whitaker (1812), 185); see the report under Thorp Arch for the find-spot. 

History

In Domesday Book, before the Conquest, Archil and Orm and Ernebrand had 6 carucates for geld; after, in East and West Marton, Roger the Poitevin had 6 carucates. Shortly thereafter (following Whitaker (1805), 67), the manor was in the hands of a family who took their name from the village, and the Marton family retained possession, and the advowson of the church, until the 17thc.

Features

Exterior Features

Exterior Decoration

Miscellaneous

1. Double chevron voussoir, nave N wall

Set over the central window of the N nave wall is a chevron voussoir, two centrifugal units wide with a quirked roll profile and drop-shaped leaves between the chevrons, each decorated with a row of beading along the spine.

2. Reset chevron voussoir, chancel E wall

Low down on the E wall of the chancel, close to the NE corner, is a centrifugal chevron voussoir with seven thin rolls of face chevron.

3. Reset chevron voussoir, chancel N wall

High on the chancel N wall, partly concealed behing the drainpipe, is a chevron voussoir similar to that in the chancel E wall (numbered 2 above).

4. Reset chevron voussoir, nave N wall (1)

High on the nave N wall, towards the E end are two reset chevron voussoirs, like that described at 2 above. The upper one (called 4) is damaged on the upper half of the face.

5. Reset chevron voussoir, nave N wall (2)

High on the nave N wall, towards the E end are two reset chevron voussoirs, like that described at 2 above. The lower one (called 5) is in good condition.

Interior Features

Arches

Tower/Transept arches

Tower arch

This is plain and round-headed but it is plastered and painted; there is no distinctively twelfth-century masonry visible.

 

Dimensions
Width of opening 2.46m

Furnishings

Fonts

Font

The plain cylindrical font is at the W end of the nave near the tower arch. The font has been cut to take the pipe of a drain from the basin, presumably to save the difficulty of boring vertically downwards through the approximately 0.33m of stone which a central drain would have required. A lead pipe fitted in this recess would have taken the baptismal water away into the floor of the building.

 

Dimensions
Depth of interior of bowl 0.36m
External diam. of bowl 0.64-0.68m
Ht. of font 0.69m
Internal diam. of bowl 0.5-0.52m

Loose Sculpture

Part of a limestone shaft

The shaft is displayed mounted on a wooden support and stands in a corner against the west wall of the nave near the tower arch. The stone has four faces, two a little broader than the others, and it tapers slightly upwards; the whole surface is covered with one continuous design. There is a straight margin limiting the design at the bottom, this is clearest on side C. The upper limit of the shaft is worn and uneven, with perhaps the highest point being on side C; there is no sign of an upper straight margin in the carving. Within the top is a smooth but irregular depression.

The main ornamental feature is an irregular swirl of wavy trails which continue randomly round all four sides. There are occasional buds or spirals as terminations, but no leaves seem present. There is no obvious trunk or root as a source for the vegetal feature, unless it is on side D, which is the most damaged side, consequently it is hard to say if there is any beginning or end of the trails. Sometimes they are narrow and rather flat; broader ones have a bold rounded central band with narrower borders. Two, perhaps three, of the sides of the stone are ‘inhabited’: there is a winged quadruped on side A, and a standing man on side B (for the third, see Comments). There are at least three fruits (sides B and C), composed of berries or scales in an elongated, pointed cluster. From the best-preserved parts of the sculpture, it can be seen that the standard of work was highly competent.

Dimensions

Collingwood's measurements
Height of tenon 0.25m
Max. height overall 0.84m
CRSBI measurements
Max. height visible 0.585m
Width at bottom, narrower face 0.23m
Width at bottom, wider face 0.26m
Whitaker's measurements
Depth of hollow in top of shaft 0.06m

Side A

This is the best preserved face, and it contains a winged quadruped in the upper part. The claws of its L front foot make a knob on the angle; the second foot is probably extended along the angle above. One hind foot is well-preserved, while the remains of the second hind foot could have been to the R of the main trail. A quadruped like this would have a tufted tail, but this cannot be distinguished. The face and head of the animal face R, but these are almost entirely flaked away, though one triangular ear is characteristic; perhaps the sharp triangle below is a part of the lower ear. There is the suggestion of the upper lip in some views.

Side B

This face has the figure of a standing man facing L and holding something upright in his R hand; the object is symmetrical with two knobs below and an upper elliptical or pointed part. Some photos show that there is a spiral on the R knob above the hand; the two knobs are thus likely to represent a pair of leaves below a fruit.

Side C

This side has more of the rambling trails, and may have a third figure.

Side D

This side is the most decayed but may contain the source of the trails at the bottom R.

Comments/Opinions

Provenance of the shaft

There can be no doubt that this is the piece illustrated by T. D. Whitaker in the early-19thc (1812, plate facing p. 185; 1878, pl. between pp. 94 and 95). He says the shaft was found at ‘St Helen’s Well upon the River Wharfe’ (1812, 184-5; 1878, 239-40). There had at one time been a road-side chapel there (see report for St Helen’s well and chapel, under Thorp Arch). The caption to Whitaker’s illustration (1812, opposite p. 185; signed ‘J. Harris sculpt. 1808’) reads: ‘Shaft of a cross found among the bushes, near St Helen’s Hill [artist’s mistake for ‘Well’], upon the River Wharfe two miles below Thorp Arch in Yorkshire. It now stands in Mr Asheton’s Garden at Boston [Boston Spa]’.  In the 1878 edition, the same illustration appears between pages 94 and 95, but the shaft is by then ‘in the possession of Mrs Richardson of Gargrave’. Collingwood (1915, 176-8) saw this stone at Gledstone Hall, West Marton. He says that it had been brought to Gledstone Hall from Knaresborough about a hundred years ago by the Roundell family. Having been in a garden, it had recently (April, 1913) been taken under cover for better preservation. Scriven Park, mentioned as a former resting-place of the stone, is just N of Knaresborough (Pevsner 1967, 362). It is not known when the shaft was brought to St Peter's. Collingwood says the shaft 'appears to be of the yellow freestone found at Knaresborough. It is terminated below with a large tenon…  in the top, as seen at present, is a hollow too large to be the socket for the upper part of the shaft'; he wonders if the stone had been used as a holy-water stoup or basin. 

Nature of the sculpture on the shaft

Within the wooden support, according to Collingwood (1915, 176-8), is an uncarved tenon about 10 inches (c. 0.25m) high. Whitaker noted the ‘hole’ in the top of the shaft as 2½ inches deep (1812, plate opp. p. 185), but the cavity was seen as a shallow bowl by Collingwood; both descriptions still apply. The carvings have decayed since being drawn by Collingwood, for example, on side C, the fruit, top left. On side C Collingwood thought that there was perhaps a second figure suggested by what he saw as the legs of a man facing right; he sketched in a head and arm above the present limit of the stone.

Collingwood could not fix on a period for the carvings, but he assumed they were pre-Norman. Kit Galbraith (in material at the Society of Antiquaries) was interested in the fragment, so presumably thought it Romanesque. Elizabeth Coatsworth (2008, 288) mentions the stone among those wrongly associated with the pre-Conquest period, and considers it ‘unequivocally Romanesque’.

The stone used is Magnesian limestone: this is borne out by the colour, the nature of the general wear and the fine parallel ridging on, for example, face B, which has worn like some stone at Healaugh. The sculpture at Healaugh church has similarities to that on the shaft, particularly in the mass of aimless but busy and leafless trails on parts of the doorway and chancel arch (a pattern on the chancel arch has the threefold profile used on the broader trails), and there is an elongated fruit on the doorway (1st order, L capital). The supposed dragon might be compared to a lion on the doorway (2nd order, L capital; another on the R side). The doorway at Brayton (2nd order, L capital) has a standing human figure looking L; there is also a winged animal and a lion (4th order, L capital) that are biting coiling leafless stems as on the shaft. Capitals of the doorway at Wighill include the trails, with something like the fruit, and a winged beast. A medallion on the doorway at Birkin has the pointed fruit; fruits at Healaugh, Wighill and Birkin are cross-hatched. There are many such fruits at, for example, Autun in Burgundy.

Regarding Collingwood’s drawings of the shaft, the dragon’s head (side A) is a misleading reconstruction, and it is suggested that the animal is a winged lion biting a stem or eating the plant. That activity is carved at Brayton, where the animals have the usual short heads. Regarding the ‘weapon’ held up by the man on side B, it has been described above as likely to be a pair of leaves and a fruit. It is suggested that the standing man has picked the fruit, and that both lion and man are enjoying life in a flourishing paradise. The top of the shaft has been reduced by wear rather than breakage or it would not be rounded and approximately level; it cannot have lost more than 2 or 3 centimetres, hardly room for the man’s head added by Collingwood on side C. The figure postulated by Collingwood would have been much smaller than the complete figure on side B, which would be unusual. The smaller figure appears to be naked, but the other has a garment tied round his waist. The one ‘foot’ of the figure might well be something else, for example it might have made a loop with the broken foot: it is suggested that the standing man on side C is an illusion. The carving has deteriorated since Collingwood drew it, so his drawing is valuable, but it does not demonstrate the continuity between the four faces.

The finding of this shaft at a site associated with St Helen suggests that it might have been the shaft of a small standing cross, intended to show paradise made available to mankind through the saving power of the Cross. On the other hand, there are two small fully-carved shafts at Barton-le-Street (North Riding), one of which supports a modern piscina bowl. Several carved shafts further south in the West Riding are larger and, though probably broadly contemporary, have no direct similarities.

Bibliography

  • E. Coatsworth, Corpus of Anglo Saxon Stone Sculpture, Western Yorkshire vol. VIII, Oxford 2008.

  • W. G. Collingwood, 'Anglian and Anglo-Danish Sculpture in the West Riding',  Yorkshire Archaeological Journal,  23 (1915), 129-299.

  • P. Leach and N. Pevsner, The Buildings of England, Yorkshire West Riding: Leeds, Bradford and the North, Yale 2009.

  • J. E. Morris, The West Riding of Yorkshire. 2nd ed. (1906) 1919.

  • N. Pevsner, The Buildings of England, Yorkshire: West Riding, Harmondsworth, 1959.  2nd. ed. revised E. Radcliffe. 1967.

  • T. D. Whitaker, The History and Antiquities of the Deanery of Craven, London 1805, 2nd edn. 1812 and 3rd edn.Leeds 1878.

Location

Site Location
East Marton
National Grid Reference
SD 908 507 
Boundaries
now: North Yorkshire
pre-1974 traditional (England and Wales): Yorkshire, West Riding
Diocese
now: West Yorkshire and the Dales
formerly: Bradford
medieval: York
Dedication
now: St Peter
medieval: St Peter
Type of building/monument
Parish church  
Report authors
Rita Wood 
Visit Date
03 September 2009, 19 July 2010, 23 Sep and 21 Oct 2016