All Saints, Fawley, Hampshire

Feature Sets (3)

Description

Fawley is a village on the W bank of Sothampton Water where it runs into the Solent; a position now dominated by the Esso oil refinery immediately W of the church.  All Saints has a nave with 4-bay aisles, but the E bay of the S aisle is occupied by the arches of the tower. The chancel has a two-bay N chapel, used for weekday services, and a similar S chapel screened off for use as a vestry. The nave is 12thc in origin, with a chevron-decorated W doorway under a neo-Romanesque porch.  The chancel arch, chancel chapel arcades and the W and N arches of the tower are 12thc work too (the E arch to the vestry is narrow and 19thc, and there is no S arch because the outer wall is in that position).  The nave arcades are 13thc .

History

2 hides in Fawley were held by the Bishop of Winchester before the Conquest, but by 1086 only 1 virgate remained (with a chapel), the other 7 virgates having been taken into the New Forest. The church remained with the bishop, and had its own chapels at Exbury and Langley.

Features

Exterior Features

Doorways

W doorway

2 orders, round headed under a neo-Romanesque porch.

Dimensions
Height of opening 2.38m
Width of opening 1.12m
1st order

Plain and continuous.

2nd order

En-delit nook-shafts in sections on attic bases, carrying plain double scallop capitals with plain roll neckings and quirked hollow-chamfered impost blocks. In the arch is a plain nook roll and outside this a row of chip-carved saltires in rectangles and then two rolls of centrifugal lateral chevron with a cogwheel inner edge. There is finally a label decorated with a row of sexfoils.

Interior Features

Arches

Chancel arch/Apse arches

Chancel arch

Round headed, single order. The responds are square with angle rolls on the W angles only.  They support hollow chamfered imposts with a triple reed on the face. The arch is plain and unmoulded.

Tower/Transept arches

S tower, N arch

Single order, round headed. Massive half-column responds on high plinths support variants of the multi-scallop capital, heavily restored with inserts copying the original design where noted. Imposts are hollow chamfered, both replacements, the neckings are plain, and the arch is plain and unmoulded.

E respond capital

Multi-scallop with a single bead in each recessed shield and a row of sawtooth on the abacus. Original work is on the N face and the N half of the W face, and here the cones are unsheathed and there are traces of red paint. Replaced carving on the remainder of the capital has sheathed cones or fillets between the cones.

W respond capital

Multi-scallop with recessed shields. The abacus is decorated with a row of beaded zig-zag. Original work is found on the SE angle only.

S tower, W arch

Single order, round headed. Massive half-column responds on high plinths support variants of the multi-scallop capital, heavily restored with inserts copying the original design where noted. Imposts are quirked hollow chamfered, perhaps heavily recut rather than replaced, the neckings are plain, and the arch is plain and unmoulded.

N respond capital

Multi-scalloped with slightly dished shields and a mixture of sheathed and plain cones with round fillets between them on both the original and replaced work. The original work is at the E end of the S face and on the E face, and here (but not in the restoration) the abacus is carved with a row of chip-carved saltires in squares.

S respond capital

An unfamiliar design consisting of scallops alternately normal and inverted, and all reeded on both cones and shields.  The abacus is decorated with a row of sawtooth.  Original work is found on the NE of the capital.

Arcades

Chancel

N arcade

2 bays, single order with pointed arches.  The arcade is carried on half-column responds and a cylindrical central pier. The chamfered arches are both replacements, as are the E respond and the pier capital.  The W respond capital is original but this, unfortunately, is largely obscured by a pulpit.

E respond capital (replaced)

A copy of the W respond capital.

Pier 1 capital (replaced)

A copy of the W respond capital.

W respond capital

Multi-scallop with dished shields and triangular wedges between the cones. At each angle is a broad flat leaf.  The abacus is decorated with a row of chip-carved saltires in squares. The necking is a plain roll and the impost hollow chamfered with a groove on the face.

S arcade

Similar to the N arcade, but details are later stylistically and the state of repair is much worse. Capitals have large flat leaves on the angles (the pier capital is a modern replacement), neckings are plain rolls and imposts are quirked and chamfered with overhanging rolls on the faces.  Major losses are found on the NE angle of the W respond capital and the NW angle of the E respond capital.

Comments/Opinions

Pevsner and Lloyd (1967) date the S chancel arcade to the early 14thc, but they also give it three bays rather than two.  The present author prefers the c.1200 date suggested by VCH. Otherwise Pevsner suggests a date of c.1170-80 for all of the Romanesque work except the chancel arch, which he dates ‘slightly earlier’.

Bibliography

  • English Heritage Listed Building 143423

  • N. Pevsner and D. Lloyd, The Buildings of England. Hampshire and the Isle of Wight. Harmondsworth 1967, 231-33.

  • Victoria County History: Hampshire. III (1908), 292-96.

Location

Site Location
Fawley
National Grid Reference
SU 457 036 
Boundaries
now: Hampshire
pre-1974 traditional (England and Wales): Hampshire
Diocese
now: Winchester
medieval: Winchester
Dedication
now: All Saints
medieval: not confirmed
Type of building/monument
Parish church  
Report authors
Ron Baxter 
Visit Date
02 July 2014