The church begun by Abbot Simeon in 1082 had a 13-bay aisled nave, four-bay aisled transepts, a crossing with a tower, and a four-bay aisled chancel terminating in an apse. At the W end was a second transept with E chapels and a second tower. A western Galilee porch was added in the 13thc. (1198–1215), and the chancel was extended to the E with a six-bay retrochoir, completed in 1252. In 1321 the Lady Chapel was added to the N of the choir, and a year later the crossing tower collapsed. The octagon, built to replace it, was completed by 1342, and in the same campaign the remaining bays of the 11thc. chancel were replaced. The only above-ground survivals of the original chancel are the two easternmost piers of its straight section. Elsewhere in the building, the N section of the W transept collapsed in the late 15thc., and the NW corner of the N transept in 1699. The former was merely consolidated, the latter rebuilt.
The generally accepted chronology for the standing Norman work dates the lower parts of the entire S transept and the E wall of the N transept to the period between 1082 and the start of the abbatial vacancy in 1093. Stylistic comparisons with work dated between 1118 and 1125 at nearby Peterborough Cathedral suggest that the remainder of the transepts and the nave were completed between the appointment of Abbot Richard in 1100, and the 1120s. The earliest work in the lowest levels of the W transept also belongs to the 1120s, but there is a marked stylistic break above gallery level, and thereafter such late-century features as pointed arches, keeled mouldings and crocket capitals begin to appear. These apparently belong to the campaign of Bishop Geoffrey Ridel (1174–89), who also completed the tower. Not included in this report is the new Galilee porch built, or posthumously funded, by Bishop Eustace (1197–1215). The following description of the various parts of the cathedral roughly follows the building history.
This must begin inside the S transept, whose E and W walls have a three-storey, three-bay elevation of arcade, gallery with twin openings and clerestorey with a passage. The three arches of the E arcade were originally entrances to chapels, and the S one still is, but the other two have been blocked off with masonry and combined to form the Old Library, accessible from the S choir aisle. On the W side, the aisle was screened off in the 12thc., but the evidence of two blocked doorways in the E walk of the cloister indicates that entry to the transept was originally possible from the monastic buildings via this aisle. The arcade level to E and W (including the E chapels and W aisle and extending to the first respond of the S nave aisle wall) is the earliest standing fabric of the church. Arches are unmoulded, capitals are of the Norman volute type, some carved with foliage and animals, and the ashlar is coarsely tooled. The same features are noticeable in the lowest level of the S wall, but not in the arcade erected in front of it, which provides a support for the platform linking the E and W galleries. Above the arcade level on all three walls there is a marked change. Tooling is finer, volute capitals have been replaced by cushions, and the orders of arches have acquired angle and soffit rolls. It is normal to connect this disjunction with the abbatial vacancy that lasted from the death of Simeon in 1093 to the appointment of Abbot Richard de Clare in 1100, although Barlow has suggested that the presence of Ranulf Flambard, who managed the abbey's finances from five years before Simeon's death, and throughout the interregnum might have provided a stabilising influence.
Whatever the date of the change in design, it is clear enough that the upper levels of all three walls, the tall arcade on the S wall, and the blocking of the W aisle all postdate it. Much later comes the addition of the 15thc. Fourth storey window in the S gable. Some evidence for the original arrangement appears on the exterior, where remains of the springing of a wall arcade are visible. The E windows of the E chapels were replaced in the late 13thc., and those of the E and W galleries in the 15thc.
On the exterior the S transept facade reflects the nave and aisle structure within. The gabled, five-storey central section is divided from the two-storey aisles by broad, flat buttresses that transpose, at the bottom of the fifth storey, into two-storey octagonal turrets with pyramidal roofs. The two storeys of the turrets are decorated with blind arcading and there are cusped corbel tables under the eaves and sets of three corbels at the top of the lower storey.
The interior of the N transept shows the same change in design as the S, but not in the same places. Only the E arcade and its two southernmost chapels have all the earlier forms, the N chapel has cushion capitals on the vault supports and a roll moulding in its N window. The N and W sides of the transept have the newer forms throughout (although roll-moulded arches do not appear on the W arcade). Examination of this area of the building is complicated by the restoration following the 1699 collapse of the NW corner. This affects the W half of the N wall, inside and out, and the N part of the W arcade and aisle wall. Other changes to the fabric in the N transept are the replacement of the windows of the E chapels, the W gallery and the N clerestorey in the later Middle Ages.
A comparison of the arcades of the two transepts reveals a rather curious disjunction. Both have an alternation of compound and circular piers, but the system has been reversed so that in the S those nearest the crossing are circular, whereas in the N they are compound. The original arrangement, with four-bay transepts and a smaller, square crossing, would have made this inconsistency even more obvious. The reason for the change surely has nothing to do with the balcony at gallery level on the end wall, but might relate to the original roofing arrangements. Both transepts have wooden roofs now, and did originally, but the present roofs date from the 15thc. In the S there is nothing to indicate the original form of the roof beyond the thin buttresses between the bays at clerestorey level only. In the N, however, a half-column respond runs the entire height of the wall between the two northernmost bays only. This would seem to imply a roofing system based on double bays, although it is curious to find the strong roof support here rather than a bay further S.
The N transept facade differs from the S in the treatment of the turrets. A square plan with chamfered and shafted angles is maintained from ground level up to their sixth storey, where they clear the gable. At this point the plan becomes circular, and decorated with a blind arcade syncopated with the cusping of the corbel table above. The E turret is original; the W is a copy.
The original 13-bay nave had its easternmost bays communicating with the transept W aisles. This arrangement was lost with the introduction of the Octagon at the crossing, and the present 12 bays are all W of the transept. The elevation is similar to that of the transepts, with alternating round and compound piers, galleries with double openings and triple openings to the clerestorey passage, and it is remarkably regular. Unlike the transepts, however, every pier has a respond running the entire height of the wall as a roof support. Again, too, the original roof is no longer evident; the present ceiling dates from the 19thc. Pevsner finds the ambiguity between a double-bay and a single-bay system indecisive. Within this uniform system there are differences between the N and S elevations. On the N side the roof support responds have the form of half shafts against dosserets, but this system is used only for the first two piers on the S. Further W the main half shafts are flanked by a pair of smaller ones. The treatment of the circular piers also differs between the N and S elevations. In both cases the arch they carry is of three orders, and the piers are supplied with a broad cushion capital for the two inner orders linked to a smaller one for the outer order. On the N side these small capitals simply hang, with no member to support them, whereas on the S they have half-column supports coursed with the piers. These differences suggest that the N arcade was laid out before the S, but above the level of the capitals the two arcades apparently proceeded side by side. The key to this is a change of arch design at bay 5 on both sides, and a change of gallery opening design at bay 4. In the arcade arches the four E bays have angle rolls on their inner and outer orders only, whereas from bay 5 all three orders have angle rolls. In the gallery the change is the addition of a hollow moulding to the face of the inner order. Both changes seem slight, but they provide valuable evidence for the sequence of building.
Capitals are mostly cushions, but they are by no means entirely uniform. Common variables include the presence or absence of clearly defined shields, or keels or tucks at the angles, but scattered seemingly at random around the upper levels are a few scallop capitals, capitals decorated with fluting, and decorative imposts.
The interior nave aisle walls are decorated with simple blind arcading and a chevron string course at dado level. On the N side the aisle windows have been replaced, but on the S a change of design can be seen in bays 9–11, where the windows are taller, the chevron units of the string course are longer, and the blind arcade has five units per bay instead of four. The easternmost bay on this side (bay 12) has no window (because of the SW transept chapel alongside it), and is articulated with two rows of blind arcading, the upper with intersecting arches, and with opus reticulatum in the lunette below the vault. The arch into the W transept from bay 12 is richly decorated with chevron ornament. The elaboration of this bay is the only preparation for the riot of surface decoration that breaks out in the SW transept.
The gallery windows on both sides of the nave, and the N aisle windows were replaced in the later Middle Ages.
In the SW transept, the E wall is the plainest, having two bays with single openings on the ground storey, twin openings at gallery level and triple openings to the clerestorey passage. The two lower levels of the S bay give onto a two-storey E chapel, dedicated to St Catherine, which was ruinous in the early 19thc. and was rebuilt in 1848. Only the S wall is original. The S and W walls of the transept are much more richly articulated. Each has six storeys of arcading, which include a gallery and a clerestorey with a passage. The S wall also has a triforium passage, and the remaining storeys, three on the S and four on the W, are of blind arcading of various designs. There is a stylistic progression from the lower storeys to the upper. On the lower levels capitals are predominantly simple cushions, there are scallops at gallery level and trefoil, waterleaf and crocket capitals above this. In the clerestorey arcade too the arches are pointed, all suggesting that the upper levels were not completed much before the end of the 12thc. What little remains of the NW transept suggests that it was organisationally a mirror image of its companion, but with some differences in detail, including fret decoration on the E wall gallery arches and cushion capitals where the S transept has crockets, implying that it was built first.
The largely rebuilt transept chapel is built right in the angle of nave and transept, so only two windows are possible. On the exterior, it is divided into eight bays by responds, the third and sixth bays from the S being wider and containing the ground floor and gallery windows. Bays 1, 2, 4 and 5 each contain a blind arch at both levels. The exterior of the transept displays perhaps the most spectacular and satisfying ensemble of superimposed arcading in the country: five storeys of arcading above a plain plinth storey on the main walls, rising by two more arcaded storeys on the decagonal angle turrets.
The cathedral is liberally supplied with corbel tables: at gallery and clerestorey levels on nave and transepts, on the main transept turrets, below the battlements of the west transept and on the turrets there, and at the eaves level of St Catherine's chapel (although these almost all date from the 1847 restoration). The quality is high, although the range of subjects is fairly restricted, including human, animal and grotesque heads and a few exhibitionists. String courses too are limited in type, the carved examples confined to billet, sawtooth, single chevron and chequer ornament.
The same system continues higher on the walls of the W tower, which, in its 12thc. lower part, rises six storeys above the nave battlements. It is square in plan with octagonal angle turrets rising no higher than the tower body. It was completed by around 1200, and provided with a spire some 30 years later. The spire was replaced by an octagon storey in the later 14thc. Presumably the tower arches inside were replaced at the same time, but the original chevron-decorated arches remain visible.
Of the Romanesque cloister nothing remains except sections of wall arcading on the outside of the S nave aisle, and the handsomely carved doorways for which Ely is famous. The Prior's doorway, at the W end of the cloister walk, is deservedly the most celebrated, but the remains of the Monks' and Vestry doorways at the E end of the walk are considerable works by the same carvers. All three must date from around 1130–35, and the remains of an earlier doorway into the S transept aisle also survive at the N end of the E walk.
In the following descriptions, features such as piers and bays are always numbered starting at the crossing. Hence bay 1 of the N transept is the S bay, while bay 1 of the S transept is the N bay. The interior treatment of windows and doorways is only described when it includes some elaboration.
The author is grateful for the assistance of Stephen Wikner, the Cathedral Bursar, Susan Matthews, the Curator of the Stained Glass Museum, and for the cheerful and unfailing support of the clergy, vergers and cathedral guides.
Benedictine monastery (to 1109), Benedictine Cathedral Priory (to 1539), Cathedral (from 1541).
An account of the history of the abbey from its foundation by St Aethelthryth in the early 670s to 1109 when it gained cathedral status is given in Keynes (2003), and this includes the evidence for the early years of the building of the present church. According to the account in the Liber Eliensis, Abbot Simeon laid the foundations, probably in the mid-1080s, and completed the domestic buildings for the monks and laying the foundations of the church before his death in 1093. Thereafter Ranulf Flambard was put in charge, although no appointment was made to the abbacy in the reign of William Rufus. When Henry I became king in 1100, Richard was appointed to the vacancy, and the Liber Eliensis declares that he tried to finish what Simeon had begun, "in as fitting a shape and on as fitting a scale as possible", so that it would deserve to be regarded as the finest church in the land. By 1106 it was necessary to move the founder's body into the new church, where it was placed 'in a special chamber behind the high altar'. Evidence for the work at the west comes from Wharton's collection of transcripts (Anglia Sacra, I, 631). Bishop Ridel (1173–89) 'completed the new work towards the west with the tower even to the top'.
|h. of opening||3.25 m|
|w. of opening||1.85 m|
The surviving W jamb is square and uncarved on its inner (E) face. The S face is carved with foliage, basically a wave-shaped stem with side shoots looping round to form scrolls. The stems are double-grooved and decorated with clasps where they touch the edges of the jamb. Leaves are usually trilobed, and stem terminals spiral. Flowers are usually more complex than on the Vestry doorway, conforming to the trefoil form of the Byzantine, with decorative beading, drilled centres and furled petals with spiral tips. Halfway up the jamb is a bird, its body facing towards the door and its head turned back, apparently biting a stem.
The impost block has been shaved back on its E face, apparently to accommodate the modern door. What remains is carved with what appears to be the tail of a dragon, decorated with beading and ending in a leaf form. The arch head is of trefoil form, with roll terminals on the cusps of the type used as corbels on the N transept doorway. Here the rolls are modern insertions, and they are not shown on Bentham's engraving of 1770. It seems curious that these superfluities should be accommodated, with a good deal of ingenuity, by the modern doors, whereas the original impost block was not. The cusps themselves are original, however, and they are carved with the monks who give the doorway its name. They face and mirror one another, each kneeling with hands in prayer, each clad in a habit with a hood pulled back, and each holding a crosier. The L monk is bald with curls to the side of his head; the R one is more conventionally tonsured with curls all around.
The head of the arch is carved with a pair of affronted dragons, their heads crossing to bite one another's bodies. Their tails fork and metamorphose into stems of foliage with leaf terminals intertwine with the foliage decoration of the rest of the arch. This is of the same wave form as the jamb, with furled leaves and Byzantine flowers.
An en-delit nook shaft with no base surviving supports a foliate block capital with cable necking. Its design is similar to the second order capital, except that there is no trilobed leaf at the lower angle, the diagonal beaded stems run from the lower angle to the upper edges, and there are furled leaves but no flowers. The pulvinated impost has a lion mask at the angle, with a pair of double-grooved stems issuing from its mouth and forming a loop on each face. Leaves are simple and opposed, or hook-ended. In the arch is a plain angle roll.
Nook shaft carved with a spiral cable of fat and thin rolls. This supports a block capital with cable necking, carved with interlacing foliage. This is a more elaborate version of the design on the Vestry door capital. Again the double-grooved stems issue from a trilobed leaf at the necking, but there are more of them; again too a diagonal stem intersects the scrolling foliage, but now it is beaded. The design terminates at the top outer corner of each face with a trefoil flower with furled petals and a drilled centre. The impost is pulvinated, with a male bust at the angle, the head tonsured, youthful and open-mouthed. The impost faces are symmetrically carved, each with a pair of double-grooved stems issuing from the outer angle and curving in opposite directions. One stem curves up and back, forming a semicircle at the outer angle; the other forms a loop on the face containing a trilobed leaf and terminating in a trefoil with fronded petals. In the archivolt is an angle roll carved with the same cable used for the nook shaft, turning in opposite directions in each half and meeting in a V at the apex. Outside the roll is a hollow moulding. At the apex of the roll is a female head carved in the round, similar in features to that on the Vestry door, but more elongated in shape and lacking a collar.
Square jamb, uncarved on the inner face, but the S face carved with a row of nine similar flowers, one or two to a block, each square in outline. For each there is a central drilled boss with four straight grooved sepals and four furled petals radiating from it. The square capital has a pair of intertwined stems on each face, with trilobed leaves and no discernable necking. The pulvinated impost has a large, five-lobed blossom or palmette at the angle, with a pair of stems issuing from its base and terminating in multilobed leaves on each face. The arch is carved on its S face only with a running scroll design with trilobed leaves and grooved stems with reeded clasps.
|h of opening||2.21 m|
|h of tympanum (block)||0.295 m|
|thickness of tympanum||0.16 m|
|w of opening||0.81 m|
|w of tympanum||0.71 m|
|h of opening||3.51m|
|original w. of opening (estimated)||2.20 m|
|h of lintel||0.225 m|
|h of opening||2.525 m|
|h of tympanum + lintel||1.11 m|
|thickness of lintel||0.23 m|
|w of opening||1.45 m|
|w of tympanum||1.68 m|
1. Gemini - two lovers (?) facing one another and holding a cup.
2. Woman facing R holding a cup in both hands.
3. Woman facing L pouring liquid from a pitcher into a cup.
4. Musician playing a harp.
5. Musician playing a flute.
6. Two dogs bringing down a deer (?).
7. Man facing L holding a fish (?).
8. Man facing R with bellows (?).
9. Man facing L holding (?).
10. Man facing R playing viol.
11. Frontal male nude, head to R, holding (?).
12. Tumbling acrobat.
13. Fish swimming L at bottom, unidentified object above.
14. Two figures facing one another rowing a boat.
15. Damaged half-medallion.
The lintel is a single block of stone, but the tympanum is made up of four courses of small blocks, 20 in all. The mortar joins are clearly visible today, but would originally have been concealed by the paint applied to the entire surface. The composition centres on a frontal figure of Christ in Majesty in a mandorla. He is seated on a flat arch with raised edges, presumably originally painted as a rainbow. His R hand is raised with the first two fingers, extended in blessing, overlapping the mandorla. With his L hand he supports an open book, scribed with ruling, on his L knee. Behind and above the book is a cross. His feet are bare and the long toes rest on the bottom of the mandorla. His face is youthful and beardless with almond-shaped eyes, a long narrow nose and a small mouth with well-defined lips. His hair is shown as tight curls on either side of his head. His undergarment has a border at the neck and is articulated in a series of horizontal folds on his R torso. It is also visible on his L shin, where it is articulated in a series of V-shaped folds. The overgarment is decorated with beaded borders. There is an elaborate knot of fabric at the waist, the end hanging down in zigzag pleats, and similar pleating appears where the hem falls from his L knee. A curious feature of the drapery is a flyaway hem to the L, between his raised R arm and his R knee. This also appears in the derivative composition at Kirtling.
The figure of Christ occupies the entire central axis from the apex of the tympanum to the bottom edge of the lintel, and he is flanked by a pair of angels standing on the lower edge of the lintel. Their heads are at the level of Christ's chest, but since they are standing they are read as considerably smaller than him. Their postures mirror one another, seeming to walk away from Christ while turning their heads back to face him. Each supports the mandorla with both hands, and in each case the arm supporting the upper part has been grotesquely lengthened to carry out its task. Each angel is equipped with a pair of large wings, which are carved to follow the outer edge of the tympanum. Their feet are large and bare, their heads covered with tight curls like Christ's. The face of the R angel is lost, but the L one is well preserved and has large almond-shaped eyes and prominent ears but otherwise refined and delicate features with large cheeks and chin. The angels' drapery is similar to Christ's, and like Christ each has the unusual flyaway hem to the side.
The figure composition thus treats the tympanum and lintel as a single field, but the outer ends of the lintel are separately conceived, each being carved with two scrolls of foliage terminating in and enclosing a trilobed blossom (outer scrolls) or leaf (inner scrolls).
A pair of corbels carved with male busts supports the lintel. The heads are turned to face the viewer entering the doorway, and while both faces have similar bulging almond-shaped eyes and rather pugilistic noses, the man on the L has a short beard and moustache, carved in straight cuts, and a reeded skullcap over wavy hair covering his ears, while his counterpart on the R is youthful, beardless and hatless, with hair in tight curls like Christ and the two angels in the tympanum and visible ears. The corbels form part of the first order jambs, which are square in section with their inner faces otherwise uncarved. The front jamb faces, however, are decorated with foliage of the type found at the ends of the lintel; a series of scrolling stems enclosing leaves or blossoms. On either jamb the stems issue from beast heads at the foot.
In the jambs are nook shafts, each resting on a large block depicting a lion lying across the jamb with a human figure sitting side-saddle on its back, facing the jamb and holding the nookshaft with both hands. On the W side the composition is clear enough, although both lion and rider have lost their heads and the surface is generally eroded. The E side group is in a far worse state. The nook-shafts are carved with a broad spiral design, the fields alternately occupied by foliage and beasts. The foliage designs are similar to those on the first order jambs, with blossoms and leaves enclosed by scrolls. The beasts are pairs of dragons, lions, composite beasts and birds in combat. The capitals are of cushion type, carved in deep relief with a foliage design. E and W capitals are similar. Each has a triangular, multilobed fluted leaf on the lower angle, and from this rise a pair of grooved stems in spiral sheaths and a pair of beaded stems. The beaded stems cut diagonally across the adjacent capital faces, while the grooved stems each form a scroll on an adjacent face. The scrolls loop and twist, and hook-shaped fluted leaves issue from them, but they eventually rejoin at a pair of leaves at the upper angle of the capital. The capitals have cable neckings. Their imposts are simple square blocks, shared with the third order, and carved with pairs of dragons, one to each face and confronted on each jamb. The dragons on the longer S faces of the imposts have tails which transform into double foliage scrolls, while those on the inner faces spiral once and terminate in leaves. The arch has an angle roll carved as a spiral strip of foliage scrollwork similar to that found on the first order jambs but on a smaller scale. On the arch face outside this is a single row of nailhead.
Flat, squared jambs of large en-delit blocks, uncarved on their inner faces but carved in relief on their S faces with a vertical column of medallions encircled by single-grooved frames with small pellets where they touch. There are 14 medallions on the W jamb and 14-and-a-half on the E, and above them on either side is carved a twin-towered gateway with domes on the towers and over the gate, and fictive stonework, tiling and windows.
1 (top). Man seated at table facing R, drinking.
2. Deer with antlers standing facing R.
3. Large-headed goat with horns and beard facing R.
4. Ram standing facing R.
5. Boar standing facing R.
6. Warrior with shield standing facing R.
7. Rabbit with large ears standing facing R.
8. Aquarius as a fish-tailed man seated facing L and holding a large pitcher.
9. Pisces as a pair of fish, one above the other swimming in opposite directions.
10. Leo (?) with raised tail, facing R.
11. Fish-tailed siren holding her tail.
12. Damaged - appears to be a foliage motif.
13. Damaged - possibly a horse and rider.
14. Damaged - bird in profile to R, with head turned back.
|h. of opening||2.84 m|
|original w of opening (estimated)||1.94 m|
1. Lizard-like head with round eyes and drilled pupils, long snout and small round ears.
2. Fat human head with drilled pupils, fat cheeks, moustache and bristly beard.
3. Dog's head with floppy ears and drilled pupils.
4. Grotesque human head with high ears, drilled pupils and tongue just projecting between teeth.
5. Deer's head (?) with ears and short horns.
1. Dog's head with ears flopping back and forward, drilled pupils and concave cheeks.
2. Round human head with drilled pupils and narrow mouth.
3. Reptilian head with drilled pupils and long pointed snout.
4. Composite human / cat head with rounded ears, drilled pupils and thin, downturned mouth.
5. Bird's head (owl?) with small pointed ears.
1. Human head with caplike reeded hair and projecting tongue.
2. Grotesque human head with round eyes with drilled pupils, ears on temples, wide philtrum and wide mouth with pointed teeth.
3. Composite human / dog head with drilled pupils and open mouth showing tongue within.
4. Human head turning L, with long hair at sides, bald at front, recessed eye sockets and oval mouth showing teeth. Top of corbel replaced but head original.
1. Human head with caplike hair and down-turned mouth.
2. Human head with caplike hair, broad nose and tongue just projecting.
3. Human head with buffalo's horns.
4. Female head with sad mouth.
5. Devil's head with long pointed ears.
6. Concealed by rainwater head.
1. Human head with moustache.
2. uman head with caplike hair, wrinkled nose and moustache.
3. Human head with pointed ears and small mouth.
4. Devil's head with pointed ears, round eyes and prominent teeth.
5. Doglike head with wrinkled nose and pointed ears.
6. Human head turning L with open mouth, R half lost.
7. Human head with caplike hair and open mouth.
1. Grotesque human head with pointed ears and projecting tongue turned to R.
2. Human head with caplike hair and small open mouth.
3. Chubby human head with wavy hair and mouth open.
4. Human head with ball in mouth.
5. Grotesque human head with pointed ears and moustache. Wide-open mouth with something inside.
6. Catlike head with upturned snout and open mouth.
2. Human head with curly hair and ball in mouth, turning R to face corbel 3.
3. Human head with hand to brow and projecting tongue turning L to face corbel 2.
5. Grotesque catlike head with pointed ears and moustache.
1. Grotesque human head with drilled pupils and pointed nose turning L.
2. Human head with large oval mouth showing curled tongue.
3. Composite human head with pointed ears.
4. Composite human head with oval beast's ears turned to L.
5. Camel-like head with round skull and pointed ears.
1. Double head. At the top a catlike head with pointed ears and grooved snout. Its upper lip forms the brow of a human head below.
2. Beast head with pointed ears and large mouth with reeded tongue projecting.
3. Bird's head, missing section at R.
4. Cherubic human head with loss at upper R.
5. Beast head with pointed ears and large mouth with tongue projecting.
6. Human head with drilled pupils, partly hidden by rainwater head.
1. Doglike head with small ears, hollow eyes, prominent cheeks and duck's beak.
2. Human head with drilled pupils, narrow mouth and straight moustache.
3. Doglike head with large eye-sockets, drilled pupils and prominent upper teeth.
4. Human head with drilled pupils, bobbed hair and narrow mouth.
5. Wolf's head gripping object between its teeth.
1. Human head with drilled pupils and narrow square jaw.
2. Dog's head with drilled pupils, floppy ears and bared teeth.
3. Fat human head with drilled pupils and small thin mouth.
4. Composite beast head with drilled pupils, small ears and duck's bill.
5. Human head with ears high on temples, drilled pupils and straight moustache.
1. Bird's head with ears, drilled pupils and nostrils, and hawk-like beak.
2. Human head with bobbed hair, drilled pupils and tongue just projecting.
3. Snake's or reptile's head with open mouth to show pointed teeth slanted back for tearing.
4. Human head with curly hair, drilled pupils, triangular nose and narrow straight mouth.
5. Horse-like head with conical ears and prominent nostrils.
1. Beast head with human nose, pointed ears and wide mouth gripping object.
2. Composite human head with beast ears, bulging eyes and moustache.
3. Damaged beast corbel with small head and body below.
4. Fat human head.
5. Human head with tragic mouth.
6. Human head with open smiling mouth and bulging eyes.
1. Human head with bulging eyes.
2. Composite human head with beast ears, bulging eyes and open mouth.
3. Human head with crown, bulging eyes and narrow mouth.
4. Grotesque beast head with long wrinkled snout and bulging eyes.
5. Metamorphosed human head with foliage scrolls above and a clasped tapered roll below the nose.
6. Modern replacement.
1. Bird's head with object gripped in beak.
2. Modern replacement.
3. Worn human head with tragic mouth.
4. Devil's head with horns and wide grinning mouth.
5. Human head turning L, with caplike straight hair, bulging eyes and sad, closed mouth.
6. Doglike head with open mouth.
1. Devilish human head with pointed ears and oval mouth.
2. Human head with cylinder gripped in mouth.
3. Human head with caplike hair, strange circular opening below nose and wide mouth with prominent square teeth.
4. Human head with wrinkled brow, bulging eyes and downturned open mouth.
5. Wrinkled doglike head.
1. Human head with bulging eyes and sad mouth.
2. Human head with bulging eyes and round horns or bicorn hat.
3. Human head with bulging eyes and projecting tongue.
4. Human head with bulging eyes and reeded hair.
5. Devilish head with straight pointed horns and sad mouth.
6. Composite human/ dog head with wide smiling mouth and projecting tongue.
1. Human head with bulging eyes and oval mouth.
2. Devil's head with bulging eyes and drilled pupils, curly horns and projecting tongue.
3. Grotesque head turning R with bulging eyes and wide oblong mouth.
4. Grotesque birdlike head with pointed ears, bulging eyes and drilled pupils.
5. Grotesque birdlike head with bulging eyes and drilled pupils, thick lips and projecting tongue.
6. Human head with cap of curly hair, bulging eyes and oval mouth.
7. Ass's head with long ears and bulging eyes with drilled pupils.
1. Head with pointed horns and tongue projecting.
2. Head with pointed horns, wide open mouth and tongue projecting.
3. Composite human head with pointed ears and wide grinning mouth.
4. Human head with caplike curly hair and small downturned mouth.
5. Composite human head with pointed horns and tragic mouth.
6. Human head with caplike curly hair.
7. Doglike head with projecting tongue.
1. Grotesque and heavily schematised head with bulging eyes, pointed ears and round mouth.
2. Human head with tiny (whistling?) mouth.
3. Human head with open mouth.
4. Human head with smiling mouth.
5. Human head with small, open mouth, R half lost.
6. Human figure, head has pointed chin.
7. Bird with pointed beak (?), worn.
1. Doglike head with wide mouth, bulging eyes and ears flopping forward.
2. Human head with curly hair and small open mouth.
3. Doglike head with wide open mouth and prominent canine teeth.
4. Horse's head with bridle.
5. Human head with tiny oval mouth and caplike curly hair.
6. Human head with open sad mouth.
7. Human head with open sad mouth.
1. Human head with straight moustache and small oval mouth.
2. Human head gripping object in mouth.
3. Human head with straight moustache and narrow, downturned mouth.
4. Sad human head with jewelled circlet (?).
5. Human head turning R with straight hair and open mouth.
6. Human head with bulging eyes, broad nose, curly hair and tragic mouth.
7. Human head with ridged skull.
1. Human head with foliage scroll above, moustache and bulging eyes.
2. Grotesque beast head with bulging eyes, wrinkled snout and short pointed horns.
3. Tight-lipped human head.
4. Doglike head with bulging eyes and large open mouth.
5. Human head with curly hair (?), worn.
6. Human head with bulbous nose, worn.
7. Round devil's head with pointed straight horns and dumbbell-shaped mouth.
1. Human head, damaged at crown.
2. Grotesque doglike head with short pointed ears.
3. Human head turned R with sinuously folded head-dress.
4. Composite human head with short pointed ears or horns and downturned moustache.
5. Modern replacement.
6. Badly worn beast head with long blunt snout.
1. Catlike devil's head with curved horns and wide mouth.
2. Composite human head with pointed ears.
3. Catlike grotesque human head with pointed ears and large eyes, gripping ring in mouth.
4. Dog's head with pointed ears holding human hands either side of snout (Cynocephalus?)
5. Human head with buffalo's horns.
6. Human head with pointed ears and froglike mouth.
1. Geometrical: raised saltire on two stepped rolls, rectangular design.
2. Human, eyeless (?) head with small open mouth.
3. Bird's head with pointed beak and ears.
4. Oval human head with sad mouth.
5. Human head with moustache and tragic mouth.
1. Composite human head with duck bill.
2. Human head elaborate head-dress and chubby cheeks.
3. Horse's head with bridle.
4. Worn human head with small mouth.
5. Human head with wrinkled brow.
1. Badly worn and broken.
2. Composite human head with duck's bill and projecting tongue.
3. Human head turning L with toothache.
4. Human head with tragic mouth, thick lips and tongue projecting.
5. Human head with wide mouth and long canines.
6. Human head, R half lost, L hand to mouth.
1. Grotesque human head with long teeth, wide mouth and doglike nose.
2. Human head with skullcap and sad.
3. Human head with devil's horns and oval mouth.
4. Doglike head with pointed ears and tongue projecting 5. Human head with skullcap, puffed cheeks and oval mouth.
5. Human head with ball in mouth.
1. Grotesque human head with ball in mouth.
2. Chubby human head with small ball in mouth.
3. Human head turning L with bobbed hair and broken ball (?) in mouth.
4. Bird head with pointed beak and small pointed ears.
6. Human head with caplike hair and sad mouth.
1. Doglike head with wide mouth.
2. Human head with mouth open.
3. Human head with both hands in mouth.
4. Human head with mouth open.
5. Human head with moustache and open mouth.
6. Worn human head with curly caplike hair.
1. Sad human head with curly hair.
2. Human head gripping cylinder in mouth.
3. Wrinkled doglike head with pointed ears and projecting tongue 4. Human head turning L with curly caplike hair and large pointed nose.
4. Catlike head. Mouth damaged.
5. Human head with curved horns and oval mouth.
1. Doglike head with devil's horns and two long teeth in wide open mouth.
2. Cat's head with whiskers, pointed ears and tragic mouth.
3. Human head with cap.
4. Human head with caplike hair, moustache and beard.
5. Female exhibitionist.
6. Human head with small open mouth.
1. Dog's head with pointed ears and projecting tongue.
2. Inverted, oblique human head with caplike hair.
3. Human head with moustache and goatee beard, R half lost.
4. Doglike human head with pointed ears and tongue (?) visible in mouth.
5. Catlike human head with pointed ears and open mouth.
6. Grotesque and schematically carved head, badly worn.
1. Doglike human head with pointed ears, thick lips and hands (?) in mouth.
2. Human head with hand on R in mouth.
3. Grotesque head with curly horns, long snout and projecting tongue.
4. Grotesque head with curly horns or hat and long wrinkled snout.
5. Human head with caplike hair, moustache and sad mouth.
6. Human head, cracked across middle, with short nose and small oval mouth.
7. Grotesque human head with curly horns and ball in mouth.
1. Human head with bobbed hair and sad mouth.
2. Human head with curly hair and oval mouth.
3. Doglike human head with pointed ears and wide mouth with thick lips.
4. Composite human head with pointed ears and oval mouth.
5. Grotesque human head with curly horns and wide mouth.
6. Inverted human head with curly hair and spiralling horns.
1. Dog's head with long snout.
2. Human head with bobbed hair.
3. Dragon's head with sharp teeth.
4. Catlike head with long snout.
5. Duck's head (?) with projecting tongue.
6. Human head with vertical mortar repair.
1. Human head with tragic mouth.
2. Duck's head (?).
3. Demonic human head with pointed ears.
4. Snakelike head with pointed snout.
5. Human head with round mouth and bobbed hair.
6. Beast head with pointed ears.
1. Human head, L half lost.
2. Human head with moustache and beard.
3. Devil's head with pointed ears.
4. Human head with round mouth and bobbed hair.
5. Human head with moustache and pointed beard.
6. Human head with sad mouth and bobbed hair.
7. Human head with round mouth and bobbed hair.
1. Human head turned L with tragic mouth and bobbed hair.
2. Human head turned R with moustache and bobbed hair.
3. Grotesque human head with ball in large oval mouth.
4. Human head turned L with tongue projecting and bobbed hair.
1. Human head turned R with tragic mouth.
2. Grotesque human head with tongue projecting.
3. Human head turned L with moustache, beard and bobbed hair.
4. Human head with tragic mouth.
5. Human head turned R with bobbed hair.
6. Beast head with pointed ears.
1. Human head with moustache.
2. Dog's head.
3. Human head with tragic mouth.
4. Human head with moustache.
5. Dragon (?) head.
6. Human head with tragic mouth.
1. Human head with caplike hair and sad mouth.
2. Human head with caplike hair, no mouth, pointed beard.
3. Human head with caplike hair and tragic mouth.
4. Beast head with long snout and curly horns.
5. Human head with caplike hair and pointed beard.
1. Duck's head.
2. Human head with projecting tongue.
4. Composite human head with pointed ears, puffed cheeks and round mouth.
5. Duck's head.
6. Human head with caplike hair and sad mouth.
1. Human head with skullcap, moustache and sad mouth.
2. Chubby human head with curly hair and oval mouth.
3. Lion's head with mane and projecting tongue.
4. Human head with caplike hair, bulging eyes and oval mouth.
5. Human head with caplike hair, sad mouth and beard.
6. Human head with caplike hair, grotesquely downturned open mouth and teeth.
7. Grotesque head with plentiful teeth, wide open mouth and eyes with prominent lids and drilled pupils.
1. Composite human head with curly hair but wrinkled dog's snout and open mouth.
2. Human head with puffy cheeks, deep nasolabial folds, upper and lower lips almost meeting in the centre and curly beard.
1. Worn human head with signs of deeply dished eye sockets.
2. Human head with downturned mouth and deep nasolabial folds.
3. Devil's head with short horns and projecting tongue.
1. Worn head, losses to top L and lower jaw.
2. Worn head, signs of a curly moustache.
3. Human head with strands of long hair to either side, puffy cheeks and straight mouth.
1. Composite human head with pointed wolf's ears, moustache, short beard and oval mouth.
2. Beast head with pointed ears, open mouth and wrinkled snout.
1. Human head with tragic mouth.
2. Human (devil) head with horns.
3. Human head gripping cylindrical object between pointed teeth.
4. Human head with hands to mouth.
5. Human head.
1. Human head with long pointed beard and moustache.
2. Human head with hands to mouth.
3. Doglike head with pointed ears.
4. Human head with tongue projecting.
5. Human head with moustache.
6. Human head with helmet and catlike whiskers.
1. Doglike head.
2. Modern replacement.
3. Sad human head with cap.
4. Human head pulling mouth open.
5. Human head .
6. Human head with curly beard and moustache.
1. Human head turned R with round mouth.
2. Human head with hands over eyes.
3. Human head turned L with wide mouth.
4. Human head turned R with R hand to mouth.
5. Human head with moustache and forked beard.
1. Human head turned R with R hand to ear.
2. Human head with tragic mouth.
3. Human head turned L with ball (?) in mouth.
4. Human head with straight moustache and short beard.
5. Devil head with spiky ears and pointed crest.
6. Composite human head with short pointed ears and moustache.
1. Human head with wide mouth.
2. Simian head with projecting tongue.
3. Human head with curly hair and wide straight mouth.
4. Human head with moustache.
5. Human "mouth puller" head to R.
1. Elongated human head with grimacing mouth.
2. Human head with heavy jowls and wrinkled cheeks.
3. Grotesque human head with wide open mouth showing tongue and teeth.
4. Square human head with tragic mouth, narrow nose and wrinkled cheeks.
5. Square human head with small tragic mouth and wrinkled cheeks.
6. Grimacing human head with tongue projecting and upper teeth bared.
7. Apelike, worn human head with open mouth joined at centre.
8. Sad human head with prominent brow ridge and nose ascending into forehead.
9. Fleshy human head with closed mouth.
1. Human head with long upper lip and prominent nose.
2. Camel's head (?) with bridle.
3. Composite human head with prominent jaw and wide mouth but beast's ears.
4. Dragon head with wrinkled snout, small ears and mouth open.
5. Composite human head with small sad mouth and pointed nose but cat's ears.
6. Grotesque human head with wide grimacing mouth.
7. Worn human head with small pointed nose, small downturned mouth with bared teeth, and below, to either side, hands (?) supporting the chin.
8. Human head with straight mouth and pointed nose.
9. Human head with short, thin nose and downturned mouth.
10. Human head with heavy jowls, short nose and straight mouth.
11. Smiling human head with short nose and very marked nasolabial folds.
1. Frowning human head.
2. Smiling human head.
3. Modern replacement.
4. Human head, too worn to describe.
5. Worn corbel.
6. Worn corbel.
7. Modern replacement.
8. Worn corbel.
9. Worn human head with heavy brow.
1. Worn head with pig's snout.
2. Human head with tragic mouth.
3. Very broad human head with deeply recessed eyes and tragic mouth.
4. Worn human head with oval mouth.
5. Worn head with marked eyebrows, and tragic mouth.
6. Modern replacement.
7. Very broad human head with puffy cheeks and wide oval mouth.
8. Modern replacement.
9. Grotesque, composite human / beast head with wrinkled snout, bulging eyes and wide mouth with bared teeth.
1.Human head with broad nose and open mouth turning to R.
2. Lion's head.
3. Human head with long moustache and bulging eyes under arched brows.
4. Worn chubby human (?) head with long hair.
5. Badly worn.
6. Bald human head, possibly a replacement.
7. Lion's head.
8. Worn human head.
9. Badly worn.
1. Broken off.
2. Badly worn, open mouth survives.
3. Badly worn.
4. Human head with spiky hair, pointed nose and thick lips.
5. Gaunt human head with open mouth, L part missing.
6. Badly worn, appears to have a tragic mouth.
7. Badly worn, may be a composite human / beast head with wide open mouth.
8. Badly worn, open mouth and ears survive.
9. Worn helical form (snake?).
1. Human mask with tragic mouth.
2. Prognathous human head with projecting tongue and upper teeth shown.
3. Smiling human head with broad mouth.
4. Chubby human head with closed mouth.
5. Human head with closed mouth.
6. Human head with puffed cheeks and square jaw.
7. Grotesque human head with broad nose, open mouth and projecting tongue.
8. Human head with cat's ears and mouth open at ends only.
9. Demonic human mask with tongue projecting.
1. Round smiling human head with central groove on crown.
2. Human head with low brow and long upper lip.
3. Human head with drooping moustache and beard.
4. Human head with tiny nose and downturned mouth.
5. Human head with pointed beard.
6. Smiling human head with square jaw.
7. Human head with small pointed chin and tongue projecting.
9. Round human head with chubby cheeks and downturned mouth.
Human head with slightly downturned mouth.
1. Human head with snub nose and projecting tongue.
2. Dog's head with round open mouth and projecting tongue.
3. Fat human head with downturned mouth.
4. Human head with straight open mouth and projecting jaw.
5. Badly eroded human head with downturned mouth.
6. Human head with apelike downturned mouth.
7. Human head with comic mouth and prominent brows.
8. Bird's head with short pointed beak.
9. Dog's head.
10. Round human head with straight mouth.
11. Sad human head with long pointed chin and downturned mouth.
12. Human head with downturned mouth.
13. Human head with lips joined at centre and tongue visible within.
14. Human head showing tip of tongue.
The N capital is a plain cushion, the S has fluting on the bell. The arch is carved with point-to-point chevron, a roll with a flat fillet outside it on face and soffit, with nailheads in the lozenges on the angle.
Plain cushion capitals, the N with a keel on the angle. The arch is plain and square.
Capitals are cushions, the N with a keel at the angle and fluting on the W face only, the S plain. In the arch are 3 stepped rows of lateral chevron on face and soffit, all fillets and nested at the angle.
Three half columns, the central one thinner, with cushion capitals, plain chamfered neckings and hollow chamfered imposts with a face groove. The soffit is plain. The E and W faces of the arch are carved with three stepped rows of lateral chevron, roll, hollow, roll.
On half columns with capitals, neckings and imposts as first order. The arch has a plain soffit and is carved with five rows of lateral chevron on the face as follows: hollow, stepped fillet, hollow, stepped fillet, hollow. Outside this is a thin roll.
Half-round (originally circular but now incorporated into the Octagon pier).The pier carries capitals for both orders of the arcade to the W, and the NW vault capital of chapel 1 (now part of the Old Library). The capitals share a roll necking that follows the form of the pier below rather than the individual capitals, and have chamfered imposts with rolls at the upper and lower edges of the chamfer.
First order (shared): block capital with flat leaves terminating in volutes at the angles. The W and E faces left uncarved, and the S face with a confronted pair of passant lions. Both have their tails raised; the L lion lifts his head as if roaring, while the R turns his head back. Unfortunately since this bay has been blocked, the R half of the composition can only be seen from inside the Old Library.
Second order (W only): block capital with volutes as first order. The W face is carved with a standing hawk-like bird in profile facing L. Its wing is folded back, and behind it is a fluted lily, which follows the profile of the wing. The lost L half of the composition could well have mirrored this.
The pier itself is of two stepped orders to the W and three to the E. On the E side the second order supports the diagonal groins of the two northernmost transept chapels, and the third forms the pilaster supporting the transverse arch between them (see IV.4.b. Vaulting).
First order N (shared): half-column with block capital with volutes, W part visible from central vessel, E part now in Old Library. Only the W and E ends of the decoration of the N face are visible and these suggest a symmetrical foliage design carved in relief against a flat background. There is a snaking fluted main stem, splitting at the bottom into fluted leaves terminating either in points or spirals, with a single leaf at the top. The W face has a symmetrical design with a central stem rising from the necking and dividing into four stems at the centre of the face. Two stems descend symmetrically on either side of the main stem, ending in pairs of fluted leaves; the other two rise and rejoin forming a roundel which encloses the inverted fluted lily with which they terminate. The stem has simple clasps at the nodes. The E face of this capital is left plain.
Second order N, W side: Nook shaft and block capital with angle volute. The N face carved with a ring clasp at the centre with three leaves descending and two rising to form a simple symmetrical pattern. The W face has a more complex version of this design with a central ring clasping four leafy stems.
First order S (shared): similar to first order N. The S face of the capital appears to be carved with a symmetrical foliage design, but little of the E part remains visible. Both W and E faces of the capital are left uncarved.
Second order S, W side: Nook shaft with volute capital as before. The S face has two symmetrical, parallel stems rising from the necking and terminating in confronted spirals. The W face has a central main stem rising from the necking, with three pairs of symmetrical fluted stems branching off it, and a damaged flower or bud at the top.
Circular, carrying three broad volute capitals to N, S, and W. The N and S capitals carry the first orders of bays 2 and 3 respectively; the W capital carries the second orders of bays 2 and 3. There is no corresponding E capital, since there is a broad pilaster on this side that carries the transverse vaulting arch between chapels 2 and 3. The diagonal groins of chapels 2 and 3 are carried on volutes carved to suggest a capital running behind the pilaster. Each main capital face is carved with a pair of designs of clasped and fluted stems with fluted leaves and spiral terminals. These are too irregular to describe in detail, and never mirror one another. Between the main faces foliage motifs are carved which span adjoining capitals. These are normally small and symmetrical. The E volute of the N capital is carved with two symmetrical rows of zigzag.
First order (shared): half column supporting block capital with volutes. The main (N) face carved with a symmetrical design of foliage with clasping and fluted leaves. The stair turret obscures the W face, and the E face has a simple tree-like design.
On the necking at the angle is a small fluted trilobed leaf with scalloped edge. A grooved stem arises from this, splitting into a pair of stems, one curving around each face of the capital. These stems terminate in confronted lilies in the centre of each face. The L stem has two single leaves sprouting from it.
On the necking at the angle is a small fluted bilobed leaf. Growing out of this is a pair of grooved stems, which curve around the angle, joining at the top to form a medallion which encloses the inverted lily with which they terminate. Another stem branches out of the medallion on the L, terminating in a lily on the L face.
All surviving parts follow the same pattern as the S bay. The first order S capital is double-scalloped on its main face with a roll between the scallops, the second order capital is a plain cushion, and the third order capital has a cushion shield but indications of three scallops on the bell.
Both side supports and the central shaft are lost. Of the capitals only the W face of the N jamb capital is visible. This is a cushion. The arches show slim angle rolls visible on the W face, and presumably had the same form as their counterparts in the SW transept.
A half-column nook shaft on the N jamb supports a plain cushion capital with impost as described. In the arch is point-to-point single-roll chevron on face and soffit with units of nailhead in the lozenges formed on the angle.
Three orders, the inner order is a double round-headed opening with broad soffit rolls and narrow face rolls. The central shaft is circular and coursed. Towards the main vessel the second order has an angle roll, and the third an angle roll and face hollow. Inside the gallery there are three orders, all plain and square, the outer on imposts only. Capitals are all cushions with square neckings and hollow chamfered imposts except as detailed below:
Pier 1, first order: the half of the capital towards the central vessel is deeply carved with a foliage design of a fluted stem curling around the angle of the capital and dividing into five fluted leaves with spiral tips. Halfway along this stem is another pair of fluted leaves. The remainder of the capital is a simple cushion.
Pier 1, second order: a triple fluted leaf with scalloped edge on the lower angle, and rising symmetrically from it to L and R on each face are curving fluted stems, each terminating in a lily with a long central shoot. These meet at the angle in a pair of volutes.
As bay 1 but all capitals are plain cushions.
The capital is of the plain volute type supported on a nook shaft. It supports a plain, transverse entablature rather than an arch, and although it is at the same level as the cushion capital of the arcade, the different capital types and impost profiles indicate that it belonged to an earlier design for the platform.
As in the S transept, the buttress consists of a broad flat two-step pilaster with a central half-column flanked by nook shafts. Unlike the S transept, however, the arrangement of capitals belongs to the second phase of design. All capitals are plain cushions with keels, square neckings and hollow chamfered imposts, and they are set at the same level as the arcade capitals (rather than above them, as in the S). What they support is a short length of broad half-column that terminates at the vault and does not continue in the same form on the wall at a higher level.
Nook shaft supporting block capital with angle volute. Each face is carved with a design of curving stems similar to those found on the E arcade capitals. The capital has a roll necking and a chamfered impost with rolls at the upper and lower edges of the chamfer.
The groin is carried on a plain volute capital carried on a nook shaft. The faces of the capital are carved with similar foliage forms with three pairs of stems branching out symmetrically from a central trunk. The volute is carved with symmetrical curves in low relief, terminating in spirals at the bottom.
The groin is carried on a plain volute capital carried on a nook shaft. The leaves at the angles are broad and flat, and the face decoration is simply a narrow vertical loop. Impost and necking as above.
The groin is carried on a volute capital carried on a nook shaft. The capital's E face has a simple design of three symmetrical pairs of stems issuing from a ring clasp at the top of a short trunk. The S face has four vertical reedlike stems terminating in spirals. Impost and necking as before.
The groin is carried on a volute capital carried on a nook shaft. The N face only of the capital is carved with a simple vertical stem with two pairs of symmetrical branches. Impost and necking as above.
The groin capital shares the circular pier of the transept E arcade. It has an angle volute, the E face is not carved, and the N face shares a simple foliage design with the adjoining face of the arcade pier.
The groin capital shares the circular pier of the transept E arcade. It has an angle volute against the transverse arch pilaster, so there is no E face, and the S face shares a simple foliage design with the adjoining face of the arcade pier.
Side faces are plain, and the volutes have no extra decoration. On the main face is a pair of confronted, fighting bears on their hind legs.
The two faces are carved in low relief with a pair of confronted passant lions, one to each face and mirroring on another. Both have curly manes and open mouths. That on the E face has its tail raised over its back, that on the N has its tail down between its legs. The volute leaf is decorated with a lily with a clasp ring rising from the necking, the central element becoming the central flower of a second lily with clasp ring above.
As bays 1/2, but capitals are plain volutes with keeled angle leaves.
|max. l.||1.73 m|
|w. at bottom||0.72 m|
|w. at top||0.90 m|
T. D. Atkinson, An Architectural History of the Benedictine Monastery of Saint Etheldreda at Ely. Cambridge 1933.
J. Bentham, The History and Antiquities of the Conventual and Cathedral Church of Ely. Cambridge 1771 (repr. Norwich 1912).
B. Cherry, "Romanesque Architecture in Eastern England", Journal of the British Archaeological Association, CXXXI (1978), 1-29.
W. E. Dickson, Ely Cathedral. London 1897. B. E. Dorman, The Story of Ely and its Cathedral, Ely 1977.
P. Draper, "Bishop Northwold and the Cult of Saint Etheldreda", Medieval Art and Architecture at Ely Cathedral, B.A.A. Conference Transactions, II, 1976. Leeds 1979, 8-28.
Liber Eliensis. E. O. Blake (ed), Liber Eliensis, Camden third series, xcii, London 1962.
S. Evans, A Short History of Ely Cathedral. Cambridge 1930. S. Ferguson, The Romanesque Cathedral of Ely: An Archeological Evaluation of its Construction. Ann Arbor 1995 (PhD Columbia University 1986).
E. Fernie, "Observations on the Norman Plan of Ely Cathedral", Medieval Art and Architecture at Ely Cathedral, B.A.A. Conference Transactions, II, 1976. Leeds 1979, 1-8.
E. Fernie, "The Architecture and Sculpture of Ely Cathedral in the Norman Period" in P. Meadows and N. Ramsay, "A History of Ely Cathedral", Woodbridge 2003, 95-111.
J. A. Franklin, "The Romanesque Sculpture of Norwich Cathedral", MA Thesis, University of East Anglia 1980.
F. S. L. Johnson, A Catalogue of Romanesque Sculpture in Cambridgeshire and the Isle of Ely. M.Phil (London, Courtauld Institute), 1984, 18-156.
S. Keynes, "Ely Abbey 672-1109" in P. Meadows and N. Ramsay, "A History of Ely Cathedral", Woodbridge 2003, 3-58.
J. Maddison, "The Gothic Cathedral: new building in a historic context" in P. Meadows and N. Ramsay, "A History of Ely Cathedral", Woodbridge 2003, 113-42.
J. P. McAleer, The Romanesque Church Facade in Britain. University of London PhD thesis 1963, published New York and London 1984, 120-87.
J. Meredith, "The impact of Italy on the Romanesque Sculpture of England", Ann Arbor 1997 (PhD, Yale University 1980).
A. Kingsley Porter, Lombard Architecture, London 1917, I, 235.
D. J. Stewart, On the Architectural History of Ely Cathedral, London 1868.
The Victoria History of the County of Cambridgeshire and the Isle of Ely, II, 1948, 199-210; IV, 1953, 50-78.
G. Webb, Ely Cathedral. London 1950.
H. Wharton (ed), Anglia Sacra, sive collectio Historiarum partim recenter scriptarum, de Archiepiscopis et Episcopis Angliae, a prima Fidei Christianae susceptione ad Annum MDXL. 2 vols, London 1691.
J. W.Hewitt, A Brief History and Description of the Conventual and Cathedral Church of the Holy Trinity of Ely. Cambridge 1848.
G. Zarnecki, "Romanesque Sculpture in Normandy and England in the Eleventh Century", Proceedings of the Battle Conference 1978, Ipswich 1979, 168-89.
G. Zarnecki, "Some Observations concerning the Romanesque Doorways of Ely Cathedral", in C. Harper-Bill, C. J. Holdsworth and J. L. Nelson (ed), Studies in Medieval History presented to R. Allen Brown, Woodbridge 1989, reprinted in Further studies in Romanesque Sculpture, London 1992, 288-310.
G. Zarnecki, The Early Sculpture of Ely Cathedral. London 1958.