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St John the Baptist, Healaugh, Yorkshire, West Riding

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Feature Sets (3)

Description

Healaugh, one of two villages of this name in Yorkshire, is 3 miles NNE of Tadcaster in the Selby district. Nearby are the remains of Healaugh Park Priory (Augustinian, founded 1218). The church of St John the Baptist (originally, St Helen), sited across a hilltop ridge, has a nave with W tower, chancel, north aisle and north chancel aisle. Its plan is still substantially 12thc, however. The E wall and E end of the chancel S wall are later, perhaps partly due to structural weakness developing on this sloping site. The upper parts of the tower are later too, and a crack has been patched over the S doorway.

Sculpture is found on two doorways, an extensive sculptured corbel table to N and S, the chancel arch, and the capitals of the N arcade.

 

History

The church guide (1977), p.1 mentions a grant of land made by Alice Haget to the church of S. Helen of Healaugh (ecclesie sancte Elene de Helagh). The dedication was to St Helen in 1556 (Prob. Reg. 15A f.156, Wm. Watson; records in Borthwick Institute, York).

List of incumbents later 12th c. onwards in Borthwick Institute, Add. Ms. 146. A list given in the church guide, 1977, 20, was compiled by Mr C B L Barr of the Minster Library, York. It gives William c. 1150; John c. 1180/95 and c. 1190;  Reginald (= Reiner Haget?) in 1206.

For benefactions of the Haget family of Healaugh, see VCH, Yorkshire III as follows: The Priory of Healaugh Park p.216; The Priory of Sinningthwaite p.176; The Priory of Esholt, p.161.  The Haget family is discussed in Fletcher (2002), pp. 196-9.

Features

Exterior Features

Doorways

Doorway in S wall of chancel.

S doorway, chancel. Round-headed doorway of two orders, no label. Doorway is in its original position, close to the nave E wall, but to have the three isolated carved stones just outside the label is unusual and they may be reset later; however, they are discussed at the end of this entry.

First order: Plain chamfered arch and jambs in one. The chamfer is quite wide.

Second order: Plinth, base and ring integral with a block, which is an unusually large stone. Base wide, flattish, sloping, with a ledge; ring with a groove at its outermost circumference. Detached columns probably renewed. Capital, ring and impost in one block, again, this is unusually large. Ring of plain flattish section, quite prominent - where it survives. Capitals are both waterleaf with small spiralled volute.

capital has a wide rounded tongue in the gap in the centre of both faces. The split between the leaves extends halfway towards the ring then forks. E capital has the gap filled with a vertical motif which has one large and two very small lobes at the top, and a widened base halfway down the capital - a form something like an exclamation mark.

Impost  A hollow chamfer below in which is a half-round moulding; relatively narrow upright.

In the arch: face - flat with deep hollow and a heavy keeled angle roll. Soffit as face. No label.

Three sculptured heads project from the face of the wall immediately beyond the outermost moulding. Left, one course above the level of the impost, a man's head, the chin/beard broken off. Hair and moustache can still be seen, also eyes and ears. The face is turned upwards. The form of the ear on the E side of the head might be compared to that of corbel NS 22; both are worn. At the apex is a damaged head, no features identifiable. To the R, one course above the impost is an animal's head in a cavetto. It has small pointed ears and large staring eyes directed slightly downwards. The mouth is broken, but teeth can be seen at the side.

Dimensions
h. of opening 1.98m
Order 2, L capital h. incl. necking 0.185m
Order 2, L capital, h. without necking 0.155m
Order 2, L capital, w. of E face 0.23m
Order 2, L capital, w. of S face 0.23m
R capital, h. incl. necking 0.185m
R capital, h. without necking 0.155m
R capital, w. of S face 0.24m
R capital, w. of W face 0.225m
Shaft of order 2, diam. 0.14m
Shaft of order 2, ht. 0.965m
w. of block containing E base 0.66m
W. of block containing E capital 0.39m
w. of opening 0.98m

S Doorway to nave

Round-headed, three orders and label. General outline is a depressed semi-circle, and extensive mortar filling above the arch indicates subsidence.

First order: Lowest course plain and square on both sides of the opening. Above that, on the R, the next course suggests a small rounded base and above that on both sides of the opening is a lightly-indicated angle colonette. In the reveal, the angle roll of the colonette is fully-carved; then a vertical wedge moulding centrally and angle roll again at the door. At the level of the capitals, the wedge moulding runs on to become the source of a close covering of irregular stems which end usually in spirals, sometimes in profiled leaves or in 'pine cones'. The capital is basically a square block. The stems are heavy and rounded, often grooved on the L. Any leaflet is often rounded/reeded/convex, rather than fluted as elsewhere. The spirals might be described as tendrils: compare the forms on the chancelarch which are even more lively. On the L side, S face, is an animal head in profile; its tongue is perhaps foliate, it has a raised zigzag edge. 

The impost on both sides is a separate stone and has a man's head on the corner. From the mouth arise smooth, heavy, scrolling stems which divide at pointed clasps and end in profiled leaves (or in spirals on R, S face.)

Second order: Square plinth. Base with steeply-rising roll. Detached columns renewed. 

Capitals and rings in one piece, ring plain, chamfered to give approx. rounded section. Capital, L: on each face an animal which has a trace of a mane, that is, one row of curls. The tail passes between the legs and is raised over the back, with leafy tip (S face) and spiralled tip (E face). The animals face the angle and have heavy spirals beside and beneath them. Capital, R: on the W face a horse with forelock and heavy mane shown in separate strands; on the S face a dog with its tongue out. They face the angle and have heavy trailing foliage with pointed clasps beneath them.

Abaci: L abacus: on the S face, placed horizontally with head to the door, (ie, to the R) is the figure of a standing woman. The carving is very worn, but she has her head swathed in cloth, hands on hips with long hanging cuffs, and a dress extending in folds to her feet, which peep out at the joint to order 3. E face has a symmetrical pair of leaves with rope stems united by a pointed clasp. R abacus: W face has foliage and spirals and a clasp but not so much symmetry. S face: a woman placed horizontally, head towards door. This figure is even more worn than the other. There is an indication of a head covering, slightly-shorter cuffs, with dress and feet as before. However, this side, the woman's hands are placed one higher than the other, and in line with the left shoulder is an extra bulk of stone. The figures should be compared to more perfect examples from the same period at Riccall (East Riding) and Brayton (WR), where similar women occur, two holding torches (Wood, 1994, 74-76). 

In the arch: voussoirs each have a sloping plane and large angle roll with wedge two mouldings in the soffit. There are 28 beakheads round the arch, of similar design: they have pointed cat-like ears, V-shaped furrows across the brow, sloping eyes with bored pupils, and beaks with bored holes outlining them and along both sides of the keeled mandible. Soffit plain.

Third order: Bases, columns and rings as Second order.

L capital: profile leaves and spirals on interlacing stems as before, with the worn remains of a man's head on the angle. R. capital: similar to L capital, with a better-preserved man's head and almost entirely spirals, only one profile leaf.

L impost: W face worn, profile leaf and a bunch of fruit? compare the E face of the L impost of order 2. S face, spiral and leaf, with thick stem apprarently connected to S face. R impost: on each face, a stepped pair of flat semicircular arcades.

In the arch: profile as order 2 in both face and soffit. Individual figurative carvings occur on each of the 20 voussoirs. The carvings are described from L to R round the arch:

The first five voussoirs have individual human heads or animal-like masks:

1  a man's head wearing a cap or crown which has an equal-armed cross centrally. The man has an elongated face with a forked beard, and stares ahead.

2  a squat, square, animal-like mask with wide mouth emitting strands of irregular foliage.

3  a mask with pointed ears, teeth and foliage

4  a cow's head, horns bent into the centre; a three-lobed projection from the mouth that does not resemble other foliage.

5  a man's head, plain cap, moustache and forked beard showing stranded hair.

Except for voussoirs 7 and 13, the next nine voussoirs have, or had, human figures: 

6  The centre of the carving has been broken off, leaving only feet and legs at the top and clasped arms at the bottom. Compare voussoir 14: a pair of falling people.

7  a headless animal, crouching as if it were looking downwards, its tail laid on its back. It has claws like the lion on the left label-stop. 

8  a falling woman, feet and hem of her dress at the upper edge, head looking downwards as the roll turns to the soffit. She is tearing her hair, probably as a sign of despair or distress. 

9,10 and 11  depict a group of seven people in 12thc. dress seated on settles which have elaborately-carved wings. 9 shows a woman, whose dress has no long cuffs, seated with a child on her lap; beside them is a man wearing a hood or other head covering, a belt of strength (disc at back) and carrying a short-handled mace or staff of office which has a cubic head. The bodies of these three individuals are turned to the R, but their faces look outwards. The central couple face ahead, the woman (as the other two women) wears a wimple. She has a dress with long cuffs and has her feet on a footstool, which the others do not. She has her right hand on the man's R arm. His left arm is not seen, and is presumably beneath a cape. Both wings of their settle frame this pair, and its back rail can also be seen. 11 has another man carrying a mace (eroded), a woman behind him, then again the carved wing of a settle. This couple faces L but looks outwards. 

12  has a falling (now headless) person, corresponding to 8.

13  a bird perched on the roll, its head downwards, round eyes staring. Feathered wings, back and tail, also claws of feet, can be seen.

14  a falling couple, as if kneeling facing each other and clasping hands. The figure on the L has hair falling in three thick strands. The head of the R figure is broken off.

Voussoirs 15 to 20 resemble the first five voussoirs of the order:

15  a mask set to one side of the voussoir, with asymmetrical foliage.

16  a mask with its tongue out.

17  a man's head, with hat or crown with central cross; he has a single, probably not forked, beard.

18  a mask set to one side of the voussoir, with asymmetrical foliage.

19  a man's head, with plain hat or crown and with plain beard.

20  a mask emitting two strands of asymmetrical foliage.

Soffit plain.

The label is decorated with, on the face, a row of centrifugal lateral chevron, and outside it, a parallel row of two steps; this face is flush with the wall. In the soffit is what looks like a stack of three, that is, two more, rows of chevron. The chevrons are 3 or even 4 to the wide stones, but the pattern has the proportion of a normal chevron arch of voussoirs. The stone at the C of the arch is extended at the top to make a rectangular frame over the head of a small seated figure. Though very worn, several details can still be discerned:

A band-like cap or crown. The slender body and arms are finely-grooved horizontally. The figures's R arm is broken but slants away from the body, perhaps with folds of clothing draping it and providing support to the stone (for a time!). The L arm is closer to the body and most likely was holding a book, now a worn lump. The figure sits leaning forward, head tipped a little to the viewer's L, and with the legs crossed beneath him in the darkness of the blackened stone in the soffit; in a favourable light, the left leg and foot can be seen. This pose gives movement to the entire composition. Another significant feature of this voussoir is the position of the chevron ornament relative to the figure. It would have been simpler to end the pattern at the frame, but it is continued into "the picture" and beneath the figure, most clearly on the R, but also by the broken core of the chevron mouldings on the lower L. 

The label does not run down to end at an extended impost as is usual, but has label-stops at the height of impost and capital. The L stop has a headless animal, but it retains curls of a mane and claws. The R stop is blank, recut or replaced.

Dimensions
h. of opening 2.51m
Label, w. 0.155m
order 1, L capital, h. incl. necking 0.20m
order 1, L capital, h. without necking 0.18m
order 1, L capital, max w. of E face 0.26m
order 1, L capital, max. w. of S face 0.20m
order 1, R capital, h. incl. necking 0.20m
order 1, R capital, h. without necking 0.19m
order 1, R capital, max. w. of S face 0.19m
order 1, R capital, max. w. of W face 0.26m
order 2, diam. of column 0.16m diam
order 2, ht. of column 1.48m
order 2, L capital,h. incl. necking 0.21m
order 2, L capital,max. w. of E face 0.20m
order 2, L capital, max. w. of S face 0.195m
order 2, L capital,. without necking 0.18m
order 2, R capital, h. incl. necking 0.21m
order 2, R capital, h. without necking 0.19m
order 2, R capital,max. w. of S face 0.18m
order 2, R capital, max. w. of W face 0.195m
order 3, L capital, h. incl. necking 0.21m
order 3, L capital, h. without necking 0.18m
order 3, L capital, max. w. of E face 0.22m
order 3, L capital, max. w. S face 0.20m
order 3, R capital, h. incl. necking 0.21m
order 3, R capital, h. without necking 0.19m
order 3, R capital, max. w. of S face 0.195m
order 3, R capital, max. w. W face 0.195m
w. of opening 1.225m

Windows

Windows

N wall of nave has two plain arrowslit windows. They have one-piece tops. The openings are 0.63m high and 0.145m wide.

Exterior Decoration

Corbel tables, corbels

Corbels

A total of forty-seven corbels remain on the north and south facing walls of both nave and chancel: none on the tower, which has been largely rebuilt on the 12th c. base. There are 17 on the chancel S wall (CS); 22 corbels on the nave S wall (NS); and 4 each on the continuous length of the nave and chancel N wall (NN; CN). They are evenly-spaced within their sections of wall.

The corbels are all of the same basic form: a narrow plain upright at the top, a cavetto below, in which is the carving, usually an individual head - a man, animal or demonic mask.

The corbel table is plain and square with a narrow chamfer on the S side, but discordent on the N.

Corbels are numbered from L to R.

1. Corbels, chancel S wall

CS 1  Animal's head with long pointed ears

CS 2  mask, half broken away on L

CS 3  horned and fanged mask with bulging eyes

CS 4  head with human eyes and moustache but cat's, or lion's, ears. A foliate fringe between the ears.

CS 5  mask with long ears and lined muzzle

CS 6  asymmetrical form not resolved.

CS 7  mask with owlish eyes and wide mouth ajar, lower jaw recessive.

CS 8  A human face with cat's ears and fringe between the ears. Compare 4.

CS 9  bear's head turned to E; mouth closed.

CS 10 mask with pointed ears and round mouth.

CS 11 monkey's head.

CS 12 mask with round ears and wearing a muzzle.

[window interposes.]

CS 13 mask with long nose.

CS 14 beakhead biting roll moulding.

CS 15 small round mask.

CS 16 mask with lined cheeks; smiling?

CS 17 ram with large curling horns

2. Corbels, nave S wall

NS 1  mask with lined cheeks

NS 2  man with downward-turned mouth, forked beard and moustache. The forehead is patched with cement, but compare CS 4 and CS 8 for possible 'cat's' ears.

NS 3  man's head gazing

NS 4  mask with horns and small fringe

NS 5  man's head, with crown, or is it hair?

NS 6  bear-like mask with lined muzzle

NS 7  man's head (compare NS 3).

NS 8  mask with tongue hanging out.

NS 9  mask with lined face

NS 10 man watching

NS 11 mask with little hands over muzzle

NS 12 mask with wide fringe between its ears. Its mouth is round and in it is a human face looking out.

NS 13 horned mask, possibly a fan of leaves between the horns.

NS 14 mask with teeth and fringe

NS 15 mask or man's face with forked beard and lop-sided scowl

NS 16 mask with small ears and hands coming from behind and holding mouth open

NS 17 mask with little rounded ears and a beak, also a wide mouth.

NS 18 a dog-like animal

NS 19 a chubby cat-like mask

NS 20 mask with round mouth as 12 and small fringe

NS 21 mask, worn

NS 22 man's head

3. Corbels, chancel N wall

Corbels, chancel N wall 

CN 1  two men's heads, looking to NE and NW. Compare NN 4.

CN 2  beakhead biting roll moulding

CN 3  Dogtooth 'star'. Hollow tip. 

CN 4  billet in cavetto in the primary cavetto. Worn, with harder veins standing out from the limestone.

4. Corbels, nave N wall

NN 1  cow-like mask with trace of a muzzle, very weathered.

NN 2  mask with lined cheeks and teeth

NN 3  mask with even wider gape of teeth

NN 4 very worn.  Heads of a man and a toothy mask, looking to NE and NW.

 

Interior Features

Arches

Chancel arch/Apse arches

Chancel arch

Chancel arch, round-headed.

First order, common to E and W. Plain square plinth rising high from the paving. On this, on each side of the opening, heavy half columns, each formed of three courses. The base of these half-columns is similar to those at the nave S doorway. Each half-column is covered by an interlace pattern of beaded strands forming a trellis. At the top the strands weave through circles. In the spaces of the trellis pattern are usually fourfold, threefold or domed motifs with a central hollow; sometimes a blank. The interlace is not a simple trellis grid, but has elements of insular interlace in that it makes returns at the edges and centrally, and loops interwine (N side, E face).

Capital, necking and impost  integral.

Necking plain, with, L, three chamfers giving the impression of a simple round section.

The capitals on both sides are covered by strong spiral patterns. On the N capital the spiral is so strong, it bursts into the chamfer of the impost. It may be that the interlace strands from the column were thought of as continuous into the N capital. It has only one profile leaf, with a twisted stem on W face - this feature is also seen on the nave doorway. Most of the spirals begin as a double rounded section coming from a double pointed clasp. Another pattern, seen on the E face of the N capital, and the N face of the S capital, is an upright fringe, probably foliage; this fills any spaces left by the major patterns. S capital has more foliate filling patterns and only slightly less exhuberant spirals.

Impost has a slightly hollow chamferplain upright with quirk near the bottom.

In the arch, a large soffit roll; chamfered and plain outside.

Second order, to W side of chancel arch only. There is much damage and consequent loss of detail, worst on the N side.

Plinths plain from the floor, but shorter than for order 1. Base of column hardly recognisable, then a decorated engaged column each side, these are more slender and higher than for order 1. The lower part seems to have had varied ornament of irregular interlaced beaded straps. On the S column there is a small well-preserved mask with beaded straps emerging from its mouth.

At the level of the half column of Order1 on the S side, and a little below this level on the N side, the pattern changes. In the upper part of the S column, a spiral pattern rising to the R is made up of pierced beading and cusps or rows of fringing, interspersed with plain bands. On the N column in the upper part the patterns are also diagonal, but vary in direction: wear has obliterated the detail. The N capital is hacked away; the S capital has a double row of narrow upright fluted shapes of varied lengths/  Impost, where it survives, as first order.

In the arch, plain and square.

Dimensions
Order 1, diam. of column 0.29m
Order 1, ht. of column 0.71m
Order 1, ht. of plain plinth 1.54m
Order 1, L capital, ht. incl. necking 0.18m
Order 1, L capital, max. w. of S face 0.41m
Order 2, ht. of column 1.82m
Order 2, ht. of plain plinth 0.4m
Order 2, R capital, w. of N face 0.20m
Order 2, R capital, w. of W face 0.18m

Tower/Transept arches

Tower arch

Plain, no moulding except chamfered impost.

Dimensions
w. of opening 2.64m

Arcades

Nave

N arcade

Three-bay arcade. Plinths on a cross plan; not high but perhaps partly hidden in the boarded floor. Double bulbous base, not quite waterholding; Capitals severely-plain waterleaf having volutes of flat discs, but a variety of detail in the gaps between the leaves. 

The arcade has been re-tooled with a claw tool, though the sculptured details of the capitals seem largely undamaged. Bilson (1915, 109), says the arcades had 'severe treatment', probably in the 1860 restoration.

East respond formed of a large central and two smaller columns.  Plain chamfered ring not smoothed to a rounded profile. Waterleaf capitals, with the C capital having thick waterleaves at the corners, a smaller pair back-to-back centrally and a pointed tongue between the two pairs. Volutes a plain disc. Halfway down to the ring, the inner leaves are covered by five points of dentation, perhaps these are a reduction of a ring of upright leaves. The waterleaves on the adjacent capitals have a slit on the inner corners, so that a pointed leaf is formed in the angle between the capitals; this feature recurs throughout.

Impost on a half-cross plan; chamfered and plain. Arch, first order, a heavy roll moulding with a chamfer outside it; second order plain with a wide chamfer to finish flush with the wall.

Pier: one pier made up of four heavy semicircular components; ring as before. The S capital has a wide split between its two waterleaves; this contains a fluted fan of seven upright 'leaves', with five horizontal bands binding the stems. The remaining capitals on this pier have thick waterleaf as before, with a pointed tongue filling the central gap. On the W capital this has a small pointed tongue (or one unit of dentation) across the bottom of the split. Impost has rounded moulding, chamfer and upright. Arch as E respond.

Pier two as before. E capital has the pointed tongue with a small pointed tongue at the bottom. S capital has a shape like a mushroom or small rounded leaf in the split below the pointed tongue; W and N capitals have the pointed tongue; the tongue on the W capital seems to hvae been broken or squared off. Impost as for Pier one. Arch as for first bay.

W respond:  The E and S capitals have spiral volutes; the N has usual flat disc for a volute. The gaps are terminated : S, by a vertical slit almost to the ring; E or central face, by domes in the base of 4 of the 5 slits; N by a gap, reaching down to the ring. The E capital has central back-to-back waterleaves between those on the angle. S capital and impost broken on the angle.

Dimensions
h. incl. ring 0.25m
h. of capital excluding ring 0.21m
h. with impost 0.36m
w. of main face, pier 2, S capital 0.458m

Comments/Opinions

Nave S doorway

The Nave S doorway is one of the most impressive remaining from the mid twelfth century in the York area. It is suggested (Wood 2006, 60-61) that its theme is a Second Coming which brings Judgment - the reward of the elect, and the doom of the wicked: this is shown in the label and central parts of the Third order (vous. 6-14). Subordinate to this, voussoirs 1-5 and 15-20 depict a spiritual conflict, between a few men who look heavenward and evil spirits that outnumber them. The two women on the imposts of the Second order represent the wise and foolish virgins of the parable (Matt.25.1-13). It is possible that voussoirs 7 and 13 of the Third order, together with the Christ on the label, form a Trinity watching over mankind.

'Pine cones' (Nave S doorway, first order, impost) These are elongated ellipsoids, marked with criss-cross lines. Similar forms, with varying decoration, are frequently used (eg) at Autun among symmetrical palmate foliage - perhaps they are dates. Similar forms occur at Birkin.

An arched or cusped pattern occurs on the R impost (Third order, Nave S doorway). The pattern is a series of doubled arches and is close to a decoration used at the Cluniac Priory of St Fortunat at Charlieu (Loire) on the N facade of the narthex. A similar pattern, as single arches, also occurs in Yorkshire at Birkin (WR). 

There are Spanish examples for tearing the hair, in a MS. of Beatus, Burgo de Osma, Gerona Cathedral, and on a panel from the tomb of Sancho Saiz de Carillo at Mahamud.

The posture of Christ sitting cross-legged is discussed by C. R. Dodwell in Painting in Europe 800-1200, (1971) p.111, footnote 113, where it is related to Arab/Spanish manuscripts.

The chevron ornament is employed in a singular fashion on the nave doorway. It is used in a context full of meaning, and so may be purely ornamental. This example is important in Wood's understanding of the meaning attributed to the design in this period (Wood 2001, 22-25).

Chancel doorway and N arcade

Later work than the rest as shown by not only the waterleaf capitals, but the great size of stone used; mouldings and finer cutting. (Also great reduction in interesting sculpture).

Chancel arch 

Pevsner suggests "a low stone screen must be assumed". (Pevsner, 1967, 257).

The damage to the second order was probably caused by the installation and removal of a rood screen.

The spirals, the interlacing with circles and the fluted upright leaf forms on the chancel arch jambs represent earlier decorative fashions (seen, eg., at Kirkburn, ER; and Sandwich, Kent). The same sculptor worked on the S doorway capitals.

On the S capital to order 2, the pattern with upright leaves in graded series, is like one used at Wighill (S doorway) and Brayton (tower arch).

Corbels

CN 2 A beakhead. This is relatively unweathered, though broken on one corner; it could be restoration. A similar corbel is on the chancel S wall at Adel, with a mid-century date like the earlier work at Healaugh. The beakhead and roll corbel on the S wall of the chancel, CS 14, was made by someone unfamiliar with the motif.

CN 3.  This form, dogtooth, dates later than the building of the original nave, and may be a corbel made at the time of the extension. 

CN 4  Worn billet. This sort of limestone, with inclusions and veins, was used, e.g. at Cawood, later in the 12th century.

The corbels at Birkin have vague echoes of these: the human head NS 5, for example, and the turned head of corbel CS 9. The pattern of miniature arches on the capital of the S doorway is also found at Birkin.

Bibliography

  • Anon., Healaugh church guide (1977).

  • J. Bilson, 'Proceedings in 1913', Yorkshire Archaeological Journal 23 (1915), 109-10.

  • R. M. Cooke, 'Proceedings of the Society 1913 : Healaugh'  Yorkshire Archaeological Journal 23 (1915), 109-110.

  • J. Evans, Cluniac Art of the Romanesque Period (Cambridge, 1950).

  • R. Fletcher, Bloodfeud: Murder and Revenge in Anglo-Saxon England (London, 2002).

  • N. Pevsner, Yorkshire: West Riding. The Buildings of England (Harmondsworth, 1959), 2nd. ed. revised E. Radcliffe (1967).

  • The Victoria County History of Yorkshire, III, (London, 1913), reprinted 1974.

  • R. Wood, 'The Romanesque Doorway at Healaugh Church', in Yorkshire Philosophical Society Annual Report for 2005 (York, 2006).

  • R. Wood, 'The Romanesque Doorways of Yorkshire, with special reference to that at St. Mary's church, Riccall', Yorkshire Archaeological Journal 66 (1994), pp. 59-90.

  • R. Wood, 'Geometric Patterns in English Romanesque Sculpture, Journal of the British Archaeological Association 154 (2001), pp. 1-39.

General view from S.
The church from the NE
The church from the N.
Exterior, S doorway and tombstones.
General view from S.
General view of W tower and S doorway from S.

Location

Site Location
Healaugh
National Grid Reference
SE 498 480 
Boundaries
pre-1974 traditional (England and Wales): Yorkshire, West Riding
now: North Yorkshire
Diocese
medieval: York
now: York
Dedication
medieval: St Helen (1556 (Borthwick Institute)) and St Helen (Raine 1873)
now: St John the Baptist
Type of building/monument
Parish church  
Report authors
Rita Wood 
Visit Date
12 June 1995; 16 Aug 2014