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St Mary, Tadcaster, Yorkshire, West Riding

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Feature Sets (2)

Description

Tadcaster is a market town sited about 10 miles SW of York. St Mary's is a large Perp. church made in the local limestone. Aisled nave and chancel, the N aisle modern, the S aisle and chancel of the 14thc. and the W tower of the 15thc. 

Due to flooding from the river Wharfe, the church except for the tower was taken down in 1875 and rebuilt with a 5 foot plinth. (Borthwick Institute, Fac. 1875/7).  An arch constructed from fragments and a random group of fragments were reset in a wall when the church was rebuilt in 1875-7.  These fragments are the only sculpture remaining from the 12th century.

History

There was a pre-Conquest church, a cross-fragment being among the 12th-century pieces reset. Once the Percys had acquired the manor, and stone was being shipped here, rebuilding would have been likely. About 1189, the church was given to Sawley Abbey, a foundation of the Percys (Anker 1991, 16).

The HER schedule 1017407 says 'The castle became neglected from the 12th century when the Percy family ceased to have a dwelling in Tadcaster.' The area of the motte and bailey is marked as wooded on the OS map.

The church was burnt and sacked by the Scots in 1318 (Anker, 1991, 6).  VCH Yorkshire III, 404, describes an incursion of the Scots from Berwick to Pontefract and back through Craven in that year, but does not mention Tadcaster. 

Features

Interior Features

Interior Decoration

Miscellaneous

Pieces reset (i) as a window at the W end of the S aisle.

Two capitals and fragments of 20 voussoirs are reset to form an arch framing the W window of the S aisle.  Bases may or may not match the upper parts. Columns modern.

i) Arch and capitals framing W window of S aisle.

Bases have simple upright form with a type of collar wrapped round them.

Left capital: a block capital, with integral necking and no impost, carved on each face with five vertical “leaves”, which are beaded along the central vein.  The upright face above has chip-carved zigzag and, above this, a line of fine beading between two thin convex mouldings.  The block from which the capital is carved continues into the wall to the L.

R capital: a rounded block capital, with no impost, with volutes on the angle, and decorated with irregular, angular interlace with pellets or small bosses between.  The integral necking has broken away.  The block from which the capital is carved continues a short way into the wall to the R.

Two types of chevron voussoir are found in the arch.  From L: type A, voussoirs nos. 1 to 7 and 12 to 20; type B, voussoirs nos. 8 to 11.

Type A: on the angle, lozenges, formed by one row of lateral centrifugal chevron on face and soffit.  Faceted bosses lie within the lozenges.  On the soffit a centripetally carved row of lateral chevron faces the centrifugal chevron point-to-point, forming lozenges between.  The lozenges are decorated with round bosses, two half-bosses to each voussoir (some lost).  On the face, an unmoulded row of centripetal chevron faces the lateral centrifugal chevron point-to-point, forming lozenges.

Type B: of curved section, with a row of lozenges formed by point -to-point chevron.  Faceted bosses lie within the lozenges and a double groove flanks them.  Below this a second double groove mirrors that flanking the lozenges, although the points of each do not touch.

Dimensions
h. incl. Impost 0.20 m
h. incl. necking 0.20 m
L capital max. w. E face 0.36 m
R capital max. w. E face 0.29 m
w. of N face 0.24 m
w. of S face 0.24 m

Pieces reset randomly in the W wall of the S nave aisle

Fragments set as a window frame are described above as item (i). The following pieces continue in the wall to the right:

(ii) A fragment of string course with a pattern of two rows of semicircles placed back-to-back, perhaps seen to form crosses.  Faceted in the area between the crosses.  For this and the remaining fragments, which are irregular in shape, a single dimension has generally been provided as an indication of scale.

(iii) Irregular fragment with foliate ornament; a symmetrical sheathed leaf-form and a voluted half-palmette with cross-hatching.

(iv) Chip-carved decoration as (ii), cut into an unchamfered block; this is set within small convex mouldings and is itself slightly convex. With (ix), these are probably fragments of a string-course.

(v) A voussoir carved with a beakhead gripping a thick roll. The beakhead has two scalloped bands of hair below a fine zig-zag moulding at the top of the block.  It has wide ringed eyes drilled at centre, and much fine drilling randomly decorating the beak.  The beak is broken at the tip. It is smaller in scale than would normally be expected.

(vi) Fragment of a capital or respond, with a chamfered impost. Carved with a heavy spiral, probably a volute, above three round bosses. No local comparisons known.

(vii) Possibly a fragment of a beakhead voussoir, with a straight fringe and arching brows below a plain diagonally-tooled band, or it might be a lion.

(viii) Voussoir with one row of chevron, flanked by plain, square, stepped mouldings two above, three below.

(ix) as (ii) and (iv).  This fragment is chamfered above and below the decorative band; possible string-course.

(x) Roughly square fragment, decorated with two clasped double trumpets which form a narrow lozenge between them.  The borders of the lozenge are decorated with fine zig-zag and a round boss sits within. Probably a voussoir from an elaborate arch.

(xi) Chevron voussoir similar to (i), type B.

(xii) a small cushion capital with angle-tuck, and with severely damaged necking and a grooved impost, both integral.  The capital remains attached to the large block from which it was cut. 

Dimensions
fragment (iii) length 0.23m
Fragment (ii) length 0.17m
fragment (iv) length 0.143m
fragment (ix) h. 0.135 m
fragment (viii) d. 0.155 m
fragment (viii) w. 0.235 m
fragment (vii) width 0.15m
fragment (vi) length 0.18m
fragment (v) width 0.115m
fragment (x) h. 0.23m
fragment (xi) h. 0.22m
fragment (xii) h. 0.2m

Comments/Opinions

The ground plan of the 'first stone building' with its nave and chancel in one is marked in a plan reproduced in Anker 1991 (frontispiece), taken from an original of 1921 by S. D. Kitson. This suggests a 3-bay church without chancel arch, measuring 50 x 16 feet, recalling something of the church at Askam Bryan and elsewhere round York (Gee in RCHM York III, xliii-xlv). The standard and variety of sculpture shown in the remnants cannot have been for so primitive a building, and Micklethwaite's description, quoted below, considers some of the remains belonged to a chancel arch. Perhaps there had been apse or chancel foundations which were not recognised in the rebuilding.

The need in the 19th century to raise the building above the floods of the river Wharfe is the reason commonly mentioned for the destruction of the medieval building. Another side of the argument is seen in Fowler and Micklethwaite's account given to the Society of Antiquaries in December 1875. They had objected to the destruction as 'wholly unnecessary', but local opinion was already fixed on the rebuild. Micklethwaite (p. 444) described the earliest part of the standing church before destruction as being 'the north arcade of the nave of three bays, dating from the first half of the thirteenth century.' He continues: 'During the demolition, fragments of twelfth-century work were found built up in the walls, the most important being some pieces which appear to have belonged to an enriched chancel arch. The twelfth century church appears to have consisted of an aisleless nave and chancel, the length and width of which were probably retained in all the later alterations. There was no appearance of this early church having had any tower.' The S aisle was built, and extended in the 14th century. The tower built in the 15th century and, so far as is known, this was the first tower. It was not demolished with the rest of the church in the 19th century.

Several of the fragments (not the arch) are blackened, although not eroded. Perhaps interior and exterior functions could be determined, but the black deposit may have some other origin.

The form of the bases in the S aisle is reminiscent of some bases in Selby Abbey arcades.

The Roman settlement Calcaria was situated in the area of the later church, motte and earthworks on the S bank of the river Wharfe; the Roman ford was in this area (the modern bridge is to the E). Tadcaster limestone was evidently known to the Romans, and much used in medieval times, when it was shipped from wharves on the S bank of the river. The Norman motte contains Roman material in its layers; the castle is not thought to have had a stone phase (Roberts 1997)

Bibliography

  • M. Anker (ed.), Guided Tour and Short History of St. Mary's Church Tadcaster (pre-1991).

  • Borthwick Institute, Fac. 1875/7

  • J. Fowler and J. T. Micklethwaite, 'Note on the destruction of Tadcaster church', Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries, Second series, vol.6, pp. 442-5.

  • Royal Commission on Historical Monuments (England), An Inventory of the Historical Monuments in the City of York, vol. iii, South West of the Ouse (Oxford, 1972). 

  • I. Roberts, Tadcaster Castle Motte, Tadcaster, North Yorkshire, West Yorkshire Archaeological Services, unpublished report no. 544 (1997).

  • Victoria County History of Yorkshire, vol. III (London, 1974).

E end of the church.
The church in the town
View from S doorway in S aisle into chancel.
View from W end of nave.
The church from the S.
The church from the N side of the bridge.
Reconstructed arch over W window, general view.
Reconstructed arch over W window, L side, capital.
Reconstructed arch over W window, R side, capital.

Location

Site Location
Tadcaster
National Grid Reference
SE 486 435 
Boundaries
pre-1974 traditional (England and Wales): Yorkshire, West Riding
now: North Yorkshire
Diocese
medieval: York
now: York
Dedication
now: St Mary
medieval:
Type of building/monument
Parish church  
Report authors
Rita Wood 
Visit Date
2 June 1995