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St Simon and St Jude, Castlethorpe, Buckinghamshire

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Feature Sets (2)

Description

Castlethorpe is a large village in the N of the county, 6 miles NW of the centre of Milton Keynes. It stands on the N bank of the Roiver Great Ouse, and the West Coast railway runs through its W side. It formerly had its own station with links to London and Birmingham, but this was closed in 1964. The church stands in the centre of the village on a raised site which is the inner bailey of the former castle (which survives only as earthworks). It has a long, tall chancel, a truncated low nave with 2-bay aisles and a clerestorey, and a W tower built after its predecessor collapsed in 1729. There are no lateral doorways to the nave and entry is gained through the W tower doorway. Of this the nave and N arcade are 12thc, the chancel is 14thc, and the S arcade and both aisle walls are 15thc.

History

Castlethorpe was part of the manor of Hanslope which, in 1066 was held by King Edward's housecarl Healfdene, and at the time of the Domesday Survey, was held by Winemar the Fleming. It was assessed at 10 hides, 5 of which were in demesne, and was home to 36 villans, 11 bordars and 8 slaves. There was a mill, meadow for 11 ploughs and woodlnd sufficient for 1000 pigs.

Winemar's lands passed at his death to Michael de Hanslope, and when he died the Honour of Hanslope and the manor passed to William Mauduit, married to Hanslope's daughter Maud.  The manor largely remained in the possession of the Mauduits until 1215, when Robert Mauduit joined the wrong side in the war against King John. The manor was eventually returned to Robert and passed to his son William , whose own son, also William succeeded to the earldom of Warwick through his mother. Hanslope remained in this line throughout the medieval period.

The church was originally the parish church of the manor of Hanslope, and St James,Hanslope a chapel. The situation was reversed by a licence granted by Bishop Grosse teste (1235-53) and Castlethorpe church became a chapel of Hanslope.

Features

Interior Features

Arcades

Nave

N arcade

2 bays, pointed. The E respond is a square chamfered pier with scroll chamfer stops and an undercit hollow impost with a roll at the bottom of the face. The W respond is pl;ain and square with an irregular chamfered impost. The central pier is cylindrical on a tall attic base, and carries a block capital with a concave bell decorated as described below. The impost is similar to that of the E respond and the arch is plain, chamfered to nave and aisle, with a roll label on the nave side only.

Pier capital

The capital, apparently of clunch, has a vertical abacus and plain roll necking, and the concave bell is decorated in relief. On the SE angle is an inverted palmette with stems issuing from the top and forming waves along the S and E face. On the S face the waves form the spines of a row of right palmettes, while on the E face the waves contain inverted palmettes as on the angle, except for the central one which is like those on the S face, The SW angle has a right palmette as on the S face, and on the W face the two designs alternate, ending with an inverted palmette on the angle. The less visible N face is decorated with sawtooth (which could be interpreted as laying-out marks for uncarved palmettes). The NE angle is flanked by 2 of the inverted palmettes.

Comments/Opinions

A date of c.1190 is suggested by RCHME for the N arcade. Pevsner prefers c.1200 and VCH and the List Description both date it to the late 12thc, which is as close as one could possibly get to general agreement.

Bibliography

  • F. Arnold-Forster, Studies in Church Dedications or England’s Patron Saints, 3 vols, London 1899, III, 79.

  • Historic England Listed Building 350908

  • N. Pevsner, Buildings of England: Buckinghamshire.London 1960, 80.

  • RCHME, An Inventory of the Historical Monuments in the County of Buckingham. Volume 2 (north). London 1913, 79=82.

  • Victoria County History: Buckinghamshire. IV (1927), 348-62.

Exterior from S.
Interior to E

Location

Site Location
Castlethorpe
National Grid Reference
SP 799 446 
Boundaries
pre-1974 traditional (England and Wales): Buckinghamshire
now: Milton Keynes
Diocese
now: Oxford
medieval: Lincoln (Dorchester to 1085)
Dedication
now: St Simon and St Jude (from 19thc)
medieval: St Mary (pre-Reformation)
Type of building/monument
Parish church, formerly chapel  
Report authors
Ron Baxter 
Visit Date
01 November 2011, 02 March 2017